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For each of the following arguments, determine whether the person expressing the argument is guilty of

equivocation, whether a premise is unduly vague, whether it includes a persuasive definition, and whether it includes either emotionally charged or euphemistic language.

If there is an equivocation, explain which word or words are used ambiguously, and state what the different meanings are. If there is excessive vagueness, indicate whether there is a clearer statement which could be substituted for the vague one which could plausibly be taken to express the arguer's meaning.

If there is emotionally charged or euphemistic language, supply a more neutral statement which has (at least very close to) the same content as the offending statement. If there is a persuasive definition, indicate where it occurs, and how the persuasive definition differs from the usual meaning of the term persuasively defined.

There may be more than one of these problems in a given argument, or there may not be any. There may also be other sorts of problems with the argument, but you ignore those and concentrate on the ones listed. 

Argument 1:

1. A proper education should prepare someone for a successful life in the real world.

2. A university degree is likely to teach you about Fourth Century love poems or the courting rituals of baboons or the behaviour of subatomic particles.

3. Real world education would teach you about business and markets, how to be a manager and how to be a leader.


4. University education is often not proper education at all. 

Argument 2:

1. All great masters are chiefly distinguished by the power of adding a second, a third, and perhaps a fourth step in a continuous line.

2. While many a man has taken a first step, it is a rare thing to take a second in the same direction.


3. It is of immense value to persevere and take the second or third step in a line, for in this simple to state but difficult to follow lesson lies the key to greatness. 

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