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15III SCCIIIS
lies15 Lilat W
CSPOLISIOIL
implies that we could have done otherwise than we did. We do not hold a dog morally responsible for
chewing up our philosophy book or hold a one-month-old baby responsible for crying, because they
could not help it, but we do hold a twenty-year-old student responsible for his cheating because (we
believe) he could have done otherwise. That determinism is incompatible with moral responsibility and
must be rejected can be defended in the following argument. Since in order to have a moral duty to do
Act A we must be able to do A and able to refrain from doing A, it follows that being morally
responsible for doing A entails that I could have done otherwise if I had chosen to do so. Determinism
holds that our actions are merely the product of the laws of nature and antecedent states of affairs. So,
determinism entails that we do not make choices. Thus, if determinism is true we are not morally
responsible for what we do. But our moral responsibility for our actions is self-evidently true. Therefore,
determinism with respect to
action must be rejected

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