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1. According to Plato, forms are           a. eternal material objects.

           b. eternal abstract objects     

           c. classes of material objects.

           d. subjective groups of objects.

           e. wooden frames used to mold concrete. 

           Answer:


2. Aristotle maintains that the general pattern of virtues and vices is

           a. of no real significance to moral philosophy.

           b. that virtue is often a mean between vicious extremes.

           c. that virtue means a life of quiet discipline and vice means indulging the body.

           d. that vicious people are mean and virtuous people are extremely nice.

           e. that virtue is its own reward and vice is its own punishment.

           Answer:


3. Descartes maintained that we tend to form false beliefs because

           a. our undisciplined wills form beliefs without proof.

           b. we are deceived by an evil demon.

           c. we don't give factual support for our premises.

           d. much of what we believe only happened in dreams.

           e. All of the above.

           Answer:


4. The empiricists maintain that:

           a. empires determine what is true and what is false; the winners write the science books.

           b. all knowledge is derived from reason.

           c. all knowledge is derived from logic.         

           d. all knowledge is derived from experience.

           e. empirical science is the only source of true knowledge.

           Answer:


5. According to Kant, a priori knowledge is

           a. knowledge justified through reason.

           b. the same thing as analytic knowledge.

           c. knowledge that we have prior to experience, i.e.: innate knowledge.

           d. knowledge justified through prior experience.

           e. knowledge justified by prior authorities.

           Answer:


6. When Kant says that we should treat all humanity as ends in themselves he means:

           a. we must always put others' interests ahead of our own.

           b. that it is always wrong to treat other people as a means to get what you want or need.

           c. the ends justify the means.

           d. that all humans have a finite existence that ends.

           e. that all humans must be treated in ways that recognize their inherent value.

           Answer:

 

 

7. Utilitarians maintain that good actions are those that:

           a. can be expected to produce more pain than pleasure.

           b. are compatible with the great diversity of religious beliefs found in the world.

           c. are the most useful for living a life of virtue.

           d. can be expected to produce more pleasure than pain.

           e. can be expected to maximize their personal happiness.

           Answer:


8. The biggest theoretical problem facing the substance dualist is

           a. we have no evidence that minds exist.

b. it could be that we only believe that we have bodies because we are being tormented by an evil demon.

c. it is difficult to see how things as different as minds and bodies can causally interact.

           d. we now know that our brains do not run on animal spirits as Descartes thought.

           e. philosophers and scientists are all atheists these days.

           Answer:


9. Consider the following argument:

 

In every age, philosophers have compared the human mind to the latest technological gizmo. Currently we use computers as models of our minds. Seventy-five years ago, our minds were compared to telephone switchboards. In the 19th Century minds were compared to telegraph machines. In the 17th Century minds were compared to hydraulic machines. This pattern goes all the way back to the ancient Greeks, who compared the mind to a catapult, because the mind "throws you" from one idea to the next. In another couple of centuries, the idea that the mind is comparable to a computer will seem as quaint as the idea that the mind is comparable to a catapult. 

 

The main conclusion of this argument is:

 

a. In every age, philosophers have compared the human mind to the latest technological gizmo.

b. In another couple of centuries, the idea that the mind is comparable to a computer will seem as quaint as the idea that mind is comparable to a catapult.

c. The mind throws you from one idea to the next.

d. nonexistent. This is not an argument.

e. The pattern goes all the way back to the ancient Greeks, who compared the mind to a catapult.

              Answer:


10.  Consider again the argument in question 9. A counterexample to this argument would be a case where:

 

a. Philosophers in every age have compared the mind to the latest technological gizmo.

b. The mind was compared to a switchboard, a telegraph, a hydraulic machine and a catapult.

c. The comparison of minds to computers does not become quaint in the next couple of centuries.

d. All of the above would be needed for a counterexample.

e. None of the above would be needed for a counterexample because it isn't an argument.

              Answer:

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