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Question 1 of 30 Question 1 This is not a form; we suggest that you...

Question 1 of 30

Question 1

 

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Which of the following is an example of a claim?

 

"I prefer ice cream to yogurt."

 

"Water freezes at 32 degrees Fahrenheit."

 

"Apple juice is my favorite juice."

 

"God save the Queen."

 

 

Question 2 of 30

Question 2

 

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The word "philosophy" is best defined as which of the following?

 

the finding of one's true self

 

the love of wisdom

 

the pursuit of happiness

 

the love of human beings

 

 

Question 3 of 30

Question 3

 

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Bill and Barbara are building a new house, and they discuss the safety of building in an area known for earthquakes. Bill argues that building in the area is perfectly safe (he says he has friends who live in the area who have never experienced earthquakes). Barbara, however, believes it is not safe. Which of the following might a philosopher do in this scenario?

 

Examine official reports on earthquakes in the area.

 

Stay out of Bill and Barbara's business by not inquiring into the issue.

 

Assume that Bill is probably right.

 

Dismiss Barbara's fears about earthquakes.

 

 

Question 4 of 30

Question 4

 

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According to Aristotle, the Greek word sophia refers to which part of the soul?

 

selfish

 

courageous

 

scientific

 

happy

 

 

Question 5 of 30

Question 5

 

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Which of the following BEST defines critique?

 

a part of an argument between two people when one person gains the upper hand

 

a part of public discussion where two people engage in back and forth debate

 

a part of a fight between two people where both people attack each other

 

a part of philosophical inquiry that attempts to justify our claims against the objections of others

 

 

Question 6 of 30

Question 6

 

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Which of the following BEST characterizes what philosophers do?

 

Use evidence and arguments to test opinions

 

Read obscure texts rarely read by the public

 

Confuse opponents in order to stump them

 

Convert others to their point of view

 

 

Question 7 of 30

Question 7

 

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Which of the following philosophers was the author of the dialogue called The Apology?

 

Plato

 

Aristotle.

 

Socrates

 

Heraclitus

 

 

Question 8 of 30

Question 8

 

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Which of the following best defines what Socrates means by apologia?

 

refutation

 

interrogation

 

defense

 

reading

 

 

Question 9 of 30

Question 9

 

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Paul and Mel discuss the whereabouts of Paul's lost watch. Which of the following BEST characterizes a successful process of elenchos between Paul and Mel?

 

Mel says she can't help, because she didn't take the wallet.

 

Paul interrogates Mel until he gets the information he wants.

 

Mel asks Paul to retrace his steps to find his wallet.

 

Paul asks Mel to confess to stealing the wallet.

 

 

Question 10 of 30

Question 10

 

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Which of the following BEST describes what Socratic elenchos seeks to find?

 

confessions

 

definitions

 

secret knowledge

 

information

 

 

Question 11 of 30

Question 11

 

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Which of the following virtues are necessary for the pursuit of wisdom according to Socrates?

 

pride

 

certainty

 

courage

 

intellectual humility

 

 

Question 12 of 30

Question 12

 

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How are aesthetics and ethics different from one another?

 

Aesthetics is the study of beauty and its representation, while ethics is the study of rules of behavior and conduct.

 

Aesthetics is the study of being, while ethics is the study of correct reasoning.

 

Aesthetics is the study of rules of behavior and conduct, while ethics is the study of beauty and its representation.

 

Aesthetics is the study of correct reasoning, while ethics is the study of being.

 

 

Question 13 of 30

Question 13

 

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Which of the following is a topic that is studied in metaphysics rather than epistemology?

 

whether there are different kinds of knowledge claims

 

the difference between knowing and believing

 

ontology, or the study of being

 

the limits of human knowledge

 

 

Question 14 of 30

Question 14

 

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Which of the following is a question that is studied in ethics rather than aesthetics?

 

rules of behavior and conduct

 

beauty and its representation

 

the relationship between art and pleasure

 

the role that "taste" plays in making evaluations about art and about beauty

 

 

Question 15 of 30

Question 15

 

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Which of the following questions is NOT addressed by epistemology?

 

How do I know things?

 

Can I know anything with certainty?

 

How do I evaluate morality?

 

What can I know?

 

 

Question 16 of 30

Question 16

 

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Which of the following branches of philosophy looks at beauty and its representation in order to identify—if possible—criteria for what "good" art is?

 

aesthetics

 

epistemology

 

political philosophy

 

metaphysics

 

 

Question 17 of 30

Question 17

 

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How are metaphysics and epistemology different from one another?

 

Metaphysics is the study of being, while epistemology is the study of human knowledge.

 

Metaphysics is the study of human knowledge, while epistemology is the study of beauty.

 

Metaphysics is the study of correct reasoning, while epistemology is the study of being.

 

Metaphysics is the study of being, while epistemology is the study of correct reasoning.

 

 

Question 18 of 30

"Fill in the blank" question: select the correct answer. - Question 18

 

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The claim that knowledge arises from and depends on experience is -Select-Cartesian rationalismacademic skepticismempiricismCartesian skepticism-Select-.

 

 

Question 19 of 30

Question 19

 

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Which of the following is NOT true about academic skepticism?

 

Academic skeptics, such as Cicero, popularized the theory that knowledge claims are always uncertain.

 

Academic skeptics argued that those who assert that they know nothing are, in fact, claiming to know with certainty that they know nothing.

 

Academic skepticism has its roots in Plato's academy.

 

It developed as a reaction to what some saw as the acceptance of claims based on inadequate reasoning or evidence.

 

 

Question 20 of 30

Question 20

 

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Which of the following statements BEST describes Kant's transcendental argument against Humean skepticism?

 

We cannot be certain that our understanding of the world requires us to have a prior concept of cause and effect.

 

Humans have the capacity to make knowledge claims without presupposing certain general concepts.

 

Specific knowledge claims depend upon an already active structure of human reason.

 

Knowledge claims are always uncertain, and we are better off not making them at all.

 

 

Question 21 of 30

Question 21

 

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Which of the following statements is a feature of Cartesian rationalism?

 

Knowledge claims are always uncertain.

 

All of our knowledge claims are based on our experience.

 

I think, therefore I am.

 

Specific knowledge claims depend upon an already active structure of human reason.

 

 

Question 22 of 30

Question 22

 

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Which of the following best describes Socratic aporia?

 

a state of robust tranquility that results when you stop making dogmatic claims

 

a moment of indecision and bewilderment; discovering that you did not know what you thought you knew

 

the feeling of pleasure that comes from proving that your argument is better than competing arguments

 

being an affectionate and virtuous person; one who is worthy of trust

 

 

Question 23 of 30

Question 23

 

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Which of the following is NOT a feature of Humean skepticism?

 

We can be absolutely certain that the sun will rise tomorrow.

 

Our beliefs generally fail to meet Descartes' criteria of rational certainty.

 

What we claim to know is based on our sense perceptions and always remains doubtful.

 

Knowledge claims can be used as a way of habitually making our way in the everyday world.

 

 

Question 24 of 30

Question 24

 

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Which of the following is NOT a reason that Descartes gives to doubt the existence of our bodies, other people, and the external world?

 

Our experiences could be nothing but dreams.

 

Our senses sometimes deceive us (optical illusions, mirages).

 

The evil genius could be deceiving us about everything.

 

Thought is only an illusion.

 

 

Question 25 of 30

"Fill in the blank" question: select the correct answer. - Question 25

 

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Postmodernism is a continental tradition that insists that -Select-disconnection, rather than connection, ought to be emphasizedwhat we claim to know is based on our sense perceptions and always remains doubtfulhuman beings provide their own meaning in a world that does not have meaning on its ownthe consciousness that one has of being in the world should be emphasized-Select-.

 

 

Question 26 of 30

Question 26

 

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Which philosopher profoundly influenced the analytic tradition by claiming that one can only determine the meaning of a word by seeing how that word is used in its particular context and to what extent it successfully communicates an idea?

 

Thomas Kuhn

 

Ludwig Wittgenstein

 

Friedrich Nietzsche

 

Peter Sellars

 

 

Question 27 of 30

Question 27

 

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Which philosopher profoundly influenced continental philosophy by claiming that God is dead and so are the values upon which we base our existence?

 

Ludwig Wittgenstein

 

Friedrich Nietzsche

 

Søren Kierkegaard

 

Michel Foucault

 

 

Question 28 of 30

Question 28

 

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Which of the following does NOT describe Wittgenstein's notion of "gestalt-switch?"

 

Our judgments about the world are judgments of complex events and are not as simple as looking at an apple and claiming it is red.

 

Making judgments about the world requires prior concepts, such as cause and effect, that are part of the essential structure of the human mind.

 

Two people can have virtually identical perceptions of the world and still reach radically different conclusions.

 

We do not simply "read" the truths of the world. Making judgments is like looking at pictures that we can read in different ways. A choice is required.

 

 

Question 29 of 30

Question 29

 

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Which of the following is NOT true of Sellars' "myth of the given?"

 

It shows that knowledge claims are always uncertain and are not worth making.

 

It holds that there is no "given," where "given" means that the world is simply out there, ready for us to judge.

 

It points toward the complexity of knowledge.

 

It draws upon Kant's claim that our perception is shaped by the structure of our minds.

 

 

Question 30 of 30

Question 30

 

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What picture did Wittgenstein use in his 1951 Philosophical Investigations to convey his notion of "gestalt-switch?"

 

bird-dog

 

rabbit-dog

 

old woman-young woman

 

duck-rabbit

 

 

Answer & Explanation
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