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1. Which of the following is true of the distinction between induction and deduction? (Points : 1)
       Inductive reasoning means going from the specific to the general; while deductive reasoning is the reverse.
       Inductive reasoning means going from the general to the specific, while deductive reasoning is the reverse.
       Some forms of inductive reasoning go from the specific to the general, while others go from the general to the specific.
       Deductive reasoning never has a general conclusion.


Question 2.2. Inductive arguments should never be characterized as __________. (Points : 1)
       weak
       very weak
       valid
       strong


Question 3.3. In this form of an argument, one draws a conclusion based on a similarity of the present case to other cases that have something in common with it. (Points : 1)
       a prediction
       a generalization
       an argument from analogy
       a causal argument


Question 4.4. Adding more premises to a valid deductive argument ____________. (Points : 1)
       can make it go from valid to invalid
       can make it inductively stronger
       can make the other premises true
       cannot make it invalid


Question 5.5. What does it mean for an argument to be cogent? (Points : 1)
       It is valid and sound.
       It is inductively strong and has all true premises.
       It has a structure that is intended to be valid.
       All of the above.


Question 6.6. If A is a sufficient condition for B, then which relationship holds between them? (Points : 1)
       Whenever A occurs, B occurs.
       Whenever B occurs, A occurs.
       A and B never occur together.
       B is more likely to occur when A occurs.


Question 7.7. This philosopher claimed that science should focus on falsifiability rather than confirmation. (Points : 1)
       Karl Popper
       Friedrich Nietzsche
       Ludwig Wittgenstein
       Galileo


Question 8.8. Which of the following is not one of the things that can weaken an appeal to authority? (Points : 1)
       The person is not truly an authority on the topic.
       The person has a motive to be dishonest in the context.
       One is not interpreting the authority correctly.
       The authority's view does not agree with what one expected.


Question 9.9. Mill's methods claim that when there is a phenomenon or event that is regularly correlated with another phenomenon or event, then the two events or phenomena may be causally connected. Which of Mill's methods does this describe? (Points : 1)
       Method of agreement
       Method of difference
       Joint method of agreement and difference
       Method of concomitant variation


Question 10.10. "When I once visited Texas, it was hot. So the next time I visit Texas, it will be hot." This is an example of a __________. (Points : 1)
       strong inductive argument
       valid inductive argument
       sound deductive argument
       weak inductive argument


Question 11.11. This is another name for the factor that might trigger an event. (Points : 1)
       Latent cause
       Unusual factor
       Controllable factor
       Proximate cause


Question 12.12. Which of the following is true about combining deductive and inductive reasoning? (Points : 1)
       One should never try to combine the two, but should make the best choice of which one to use.
       If an argument has inductive and deductive elements, then the overall argument is generally deductive.
       The argument fails to adequately support its conclusion.
       If an argument has inductive and deductive elements, then the overall argument is generally inductive.


Question 13.13. This is the theory that, when there are multiple possible explanations of an event or phenomenon, the simplest is the best. (Points : 1)
       Psychological egoism
       Inductive generalization
       Descartes's dilemma
       Occam's razor


Question 14.14. One way to make an inductive argument weaker is to __________. (Points : 1)
       strengthen the conclusion
       eliminate the conclusion
       make the argument valid
       strengthen a premise


Question 15.15. This form of inductive argument moves from the specific to the general __________. (Points : 1)
       inductive generalization
       statistical syllogism
       argument from analogy
       deductive argument


Question 16.16. Which of the following is the weakest example of causal reasoning? (Points : 1)
       Claiming that a rock broke the window when one finds a shattered window and a stone in one's living room
       Claiming that the caffeine from the coffee one drank at 10 p.m. made it hard to sleep
       Claiming that one got into a car wreck because someone was texting
       Claiming that one lost a bet because a black cat walked across one's path


Question 17.17. Which of the following is necessary in order for an explanation to be adequate? (Points : 1)
       It does not agree with other human knowledge.
       It provides an overly complex solution.
       It is noncircular.
       It is contradicted by other instances.


Question 18.18. This is the term that one uses to describe a sample that aligns well with the larger group one is studying. (Points : 1)
       Valid
       Statistical
       Representative
       Skewed


Question 19.19. Inductive arguments __________. (Points : 1)
       are arguments in which the premises prove the conclusion
       have premises that increase the likelihood that the conclusion is true
       can be valid or invalid
       represent a smaller number of arguments than deductive arguments


Question 20.20. What is a hypothesis? (Points : 1)

       The outcome of an experiment
       A conjecture about how something works
       A proven truth
       A rejected theory

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