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In 1991, when he was just thirty years old, actor Michael J. Fox was diagnosed with Parkinson's disease. While Parkinson's normally afflicts adults...

Hi,again.I was wondering if you can help me with the scenario that I have attached and answer the following questions(there is no word count and if u can write out the question and then the answer that would greatly be appreciated, and include a reference page)


What do you think about the comparison between embryonic stem cell research and research on adult human beings or children? Is the comparison a fair one? What do you think is the moral status of a human embryo – and why? Some argue that if the research on embryonic stem cells can help treat Parkinson’s, then the end (helping Parkinson’s patients) justifies the means (which involves killing embryos). This argument clearly takes a utilitarian perspective. What weighs on the other side, however, are the various concerns having to do with the fundamental value of human life. What are your views? Until the 2009 Stem Cell Executive Order, U.S. law forbade research on any stem cell lines created after 2001 (that is the year in which that law was established). Compare the overall utility resulting from the new law with the overall utility that could be expected from the previous law. Is it just to destroy a human embryo for the sake of saving the lives of others? Discuss this question in terms of the justice objection.What do you think of the concern that allowing embryonic stem cell research might devalue our attitudes toward human life? Recent medical advances indicate that induced pluripotent stem cells – adult stem cells that have been reprogrammed to an embryonic stem-cell- like state – may be able to take on the role that embryonic stem cells have. From a rule utilitarian standpoint, would it be better to experiment with those cells instead? From your point of view, does it make a difference whether adult or embryonic stem cells are used? Image you are finishing up your college degree in a medial field (e.g., medical technology), and you are presented with the opportunity to take an internship in one of the labs dedicated to embryonic stem cell research. Would it be ethically justifiable for you to take the job?
In 1991, when he was just thirty years old, actor Michael J. Fox was diagnosed with  Parkinson’s disease. While Parkinson’s normally afflicts adults over the age of sixty  (roughly the disease strikes about 1% of that age group), as Michael J. Fox’s case  indicates, younger people can develop Parkinson’s as well. We do not yet fully  understand Parkinson’s disease, but we do know that with Parkinson’s, the patient’s brain cells (or neurons) die off. The neurons affected by Parkinson’s control motor function  and mood. Persons with advanced Parkinson’s have trouble moving and speaking, and  their hands and legs may tremble, twitch, or freeze up. They may also experience mood  swings and depression. In the very late stages of the disease, they can also lose mental  function. Currently, no cure exists for Parkinson’s disease. Scientists hope, however, that at some  point in the future, embryonic stem cells might be used to treat Parkinson’s disease. What are stem cells, and how might stem cell therapies help?  A stem cell is a very special kind of cell. Stem cells start out as general purpose cells,  which can then “specialize” themselves to carry out the role of other kinds of cells, such  as blood cells, muscle cells, or even brain cells. The function of a stem cell, therefore, is  to serve as a kind of “spare part” in the repair system of the human body. This has  suggested to researchers the idea that stem cells could be transplanted from one body to  another for therapeutic use.  Stem cell transplants are already done today. The best known example is a bone marrow  transplant for leukemia patients – bone marrow contains blood stem cells that can take  over the role of the diseased blood cells in a person with leukemia. This type of stem cell  transplant uses what are called “adult stem cells.” Adult stem cells have already  specialized to perform a particular function (e.g., the function of a blood cell), and recent  research indicates great promise in their use. Stem cells can be collected from another  adult, an infant, or a fetus.  Researchers have also focused on experimenting with embryonic stem cells, however. As the name suggests, embryonic stem cells are extracted from a one-week-old human  blastocyst (which at this point consists of fifty to one hundred cells). The advantage of  embryonic stem cells is that they are not yet specialized – they have not yet adapted to  any particular function. So in principle, an embryonic stem cell could be genetically  manipulated to turn into whatever type of stem cell is needed for therapy, whereas adult  stem cells cannot. The process of making this happen, however, is still in its infancy.  The embryonic stem cells used in experiments today are obtained from embryos donated  by couples that have undergone in vitro fertilization (IVF), a technique used to help  infertile couples have children. IVF involves the creation of fertilized eggs outside of the  womb, a process that often results in more fertilized eggs than are transplanted into the  uterus (the extra fertilized eggs are created on purpose, because not all the eggs resulting  from this process turn out to be viable). In the process of obtaining stem cells, the embryo
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is destroyed. (Normally, most of the unused embryos resulting from IVF are discarded,  although sometimes they are frozen for possible future use).  No embryonic stem cell therapies have yet been developed. Regarding Parkinson’s  disease, however, the hope is that embryonic stem cells could eventually be used to  replace the neurons Parkinson’s has killed off with neuron stem cells via a transplant.  These stem cells would then specialize to take over the function of the cells that have  died. So far, research on rats and monkeys has been promising. What does all of this have to do with ethics? On one hand, embryonic stem cell  researchers hold out hope for using stem cells to cure or at least to alleviate some  symptoms of Parkinson’s as well as other serious diseases (stem cells might also be used  to help accident victims with brain injuries, spinal cord injuries, and patients with  Alzheimer’s). On the other hand, every time a new stem cell line is started, a human  embryo is destroyed. Clearly, if any research, no matter how useful, resulted in the death  of another human adult or child, such research would be unethical. Yet researchers often  maintain that this is not a fair comparison to the destruction of an embryo. Why? Because these embryos only consist of fifty to one hundred human cells. This blastocyst is not  able to feel pain, nor is it conscious; in fact, it would probably be discarded anyway.  Of course, opponents of embryonic stem cell research do not like the idea of discarding  embryos either. This is because they view embryos as having intrinsic worth (and thus,  rights as well). This is the heart of the issue: what is the moral status of a human embryo? Although we might talk disparagingly of “just some cells,” those cells are human; even  more importantly, those cells – unlike a culture of skin cells, say – have the capability of  developing into a child and would do so under natural conditions.
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What do you think about the comparison between embryonic stem cell research and research on
adult human beings or children? Is the comparison a fair one?
There are ethical and moral concerns...

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