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Philosophy 1104 Midterm Study Guide 1. What does the Cultural Relativist mean when he/she claims there is no such thing as objective moral truth?

I have a philosophy midterm coming up and these questions I've attached are suppose to help me prepare for it. I've worked through them but still not sure I've fully answered the questions. If anyone can help me with this it would be amazing.

Philosophy 1104 Midterm Study Guide 1. What does the Cultural Relativist mean when he/she claims there is no such thing as objective moral truth? What are 3 counter-intuitive consequences of taking this claim to be true? Should these consequences lead us to reject Cultural Relativism? Why or why not? 2. Explain the moral theory of utilitarianism. What is the difference between act and rule utilitarianism? What problems does the theory face under either construal? 3. According to Kant, a good will is the only thing that is good without qualification. What does Kant mean by this? What is a good will according to Kant and what significance does it have in his moral theory? In your response, be sure to explain the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic value. In addition, please explain the 2 formulations of the categorical imperative being sure to explain what a categorical imperative is. 4. Explain what Cultural Relativists, Utilitarians and Deontologists would say is the morally right action in the following scenario: It is the final semester of your senior year in college. You and your roommate are in the same philosophy class which you must take as a requirement for your major. It is the day of the final exam and you spent last night partying. You know your roommate spent all night studying and that if you sat next to him/her, you could pretty easily cheat on the exam and pass not only the exam, but the course. What is the morally right thing to do? In explaining how each theorist would respond, be sure to fully characterize each method’s moral principle, the morally relevant feature of actions for each theory, and the procedure each recommends for determining right action. 5. Explain Rawls’ veil of ignorance scenario in detail. What kind of distribution would people choose under the veil of ignorance and why? 6. State and explain Rawls’ argument for what he takes to be the 2 Principles of Justice in his article Justice as Fairness . Be sure to also state and explain the two Principles of Justice. 7. Which type of distribution scheme is just according to Nozick? Why does he think this? In answering this question, please explain the processes by which one can come to be entitle to a holding according to Nozick. 8. Please state and explain Nozick’s argument against redistributive taxation. How could this argument be appropriated as a moral argument against slavery? 9. Please state and explain Singer’s argument for the claim that if we can donate to charity then we are morally obligated to do so. Is this argument valid? Sound? Explain two criticisms of Singer’s conclusion. Then, explain how Singer would respond in defense to these criticisms.
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10. Warren argues that although animals have some of the same rights as humans, those rights may not be as extensive or as strong. What are her reasons for this argument? On this view, why is being human unnecessary for being endowed with full human rights? According to Warren, is being human even sufficient for being endowed with full human rights? 11. Please state and explain the Marginal Cases argument discussed by Norcross. What are 2 defenses raised by opponents of animal rights and how does Norcross respond to each? 12. Explain the Equal Considerations of Interests Thesis and give an example of its application which results in dissimilar treatment of two individuals. Next, explain why Singer claims that not all humans are equal and what he thinks ought to be the basis for the prescription of equal moral consideration. Finally, discuss Singer’s notion of speciesism, being sure to address how non- human animals ought to be treated and why they ought to be treated that way.
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1. Cultural limits, has existed following the Greek period, exactly 2400 years back. Relativism battles that all truth is relative aside from the case that "truth is relative."

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