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# Instructions: Choose the causal method best represented in the given passage. Professor Copi would play music before all of his early morning...

1. Instructions: Choose the causal method best represented in the given passage.

Professor Copi would play music before all of his early morning classes. He said it caused people to wake up. I discovered when I am in his class at 8 a.m., I feel more awake. But when I take Professor Wood's class at the same time the next day, I feel tired. I think Professor Copi is right.

This is an example of __________

 The Method of Agreement The Method of Difference Joint Method of Agreement and Difference The Method of Residues The Method of Concomitant Variation

5 points

QUESTION 2
1. Instructions: Choose the causal method best represented in the given passage.

Studying philosophy causes happiness. I have a degree in philosophy. My mother has a degree in philosophy. Everybody I know with a degree in philosophy is happy.

This is an example of _________

 The Method of Agreement The Method of Difference Joint Method of Agreement and Difference The Method of Residues The Method of Concomitant Variation

5 points

QUESTION 3
1. Instructions: Determine if the given condition is a necessary condition, sufficient condition, necessary condition and sufficient condition, or neither necessary nor sufficient condition.

Where there's smoke, there's fire.

Fire as a cause of smoke.

 Necessary Sufficient Necessary and Sufficient Neither Necessary nor Sufficient

5 points

QUESTION 4
1. Instructions: Determine if the reasoning in the passage is an example of proper inductive inference or by another factor.

The highest increases in the rate of child poverty have occurred in those states which pay the highest welfare benefits. At the same time, the lowest rates of child poverty are in states which restrain welfare payments. Therefore, welfare causes child poverty.

 Proper causal inference Poor causal reasoning

5 points

QUESTION 5
1. Instructions: Choose the causal method best represented in the given passage.

Anna, Mia, Melanie, Lucas, and Nina all went to dinner. Anna had a salad, pasta, and a piece of chocolate crème cake. Mia had a salad, pasta, and ice cream for dessert. Melanie had soup and no dessert. Lucas had a steak and a piece of chocolate crème cake. Nina had lobster and a piece of chocolate crème cake. Nina, Anna, and Lucas all became sick. They concluded that it was something in the chocolate crème cake that caused their illness.

This is an example of __________

 The Method of Agreement The Method of Difference Joint Method of Agreement and Difference The Method of Residues The Method of Concomitant Variation

5 points

QUESTION 6
1. Instructions: Determine if the given cause is best described as a remote cause or a proximate cause.

If Michael Jackson had not gone on tour in 1984, then the New England Patriots would never have become the dynasty they became. The Sullivan family, who originally owned the Patriots and Foxboro Stadium, used the stadium as collateral to fund the Jackson brothers' Victory Tour back in 1984. That move ultimately caused the family to go bankrupt and they were forced to sell the stadium. Kraft bought it, which led to him not only being able to keep the team in New England when owner James Busch Orthwein wanted to move the team to St. Louis, but to eventually buy the franchise as well. Since Kraft is responsible for the Patriots winning their Super Bowl championships, Michael Jackson played a role in the Patriots winning their championships.

The Sullivan family's bankruptcy is _________ of the New England Patriots winning their championships.

 a remote cause the proximate cause

5 points

QUESTION 7
1. Instructions: Choose the causal method best represented in the given passage.

Researchers discovered a correlation between high rates of heart disease and low education levels. After controlling for factors like family history and income, they discovered that those who have less education are more likely to be uninsured, have a poor diet, and have higher levels of stress. They concluded that getting an education can be key to long-term avoidance of heart disease.

This is an example of __________

 The Method of Agreement The Method of Difference Joint Method of Agreement and Difference The Method of Residues The Method of Concomitant Variation

5 points

QUESTION 8
1. Instructions: Determine if the given cause is best described as a remote cause or a proximate cause.

When I was 3, my father left my home country of Kenya to come to the United States. After working for two years, he saved enough money to bring us over. He taught us to work hard if we wanted to succeed. I studied hard all through high school so that I could get into a good university. I received an almost perfect score on my SATs, and was accepted to Berkeley. While we have universities in Kenya, the likelihood of my getting an education there was small. If my father hadn't left us when we were children, to set up a home in the United States, then I would never have gone to college.

My receiving an almost perfect score on the SATs is _________ of my entrance into Berkeley.

 a remote cause the proximate cause

5 points

QUESTION 9
1. Instructions: Choose the causal method best represented in the given passage.

Any time I was at Nina's apartment, I would have sneeze attacks. I couldn't figure what it could be. Then I noticed she used a floral air freshener just before I would come over. When I asked her to stop using it she did. I haven't sneezed in her apartment since.

This is an example of _________

 The Method of Agreement The Method of Difference Joint Method of Agreement and Difference The Method of Residues The Method of Concomitant Variation

5 points

QUESTION 10
1. Instructions: Choose the method that is represented in the following form. Capital letters represent circumstances and lowercase letters denote phenomena:

A B C D occur together with w x y z.

A E F G occur together with w t u v.

Therefore, A is the cause (or the effect) of w.

 The Method of Agreement The Method of Difference Joint Method of Agreement and Difference The Method of Residues The Method of Concomitant Variation

5 points

QUESTION 11
1. Instructions: Determine if the reasoning in the passage is an example of proper inductive inference or of poor causal reasoning.

Anna, Mia, Melanie, Lucas, and Nina all went to dinner. Anna had a salad, pasta, and a piece of chocolate crème cake. Mia had a salad, pasta, and ice cream for dessert. Melanie had soup and no dessert. Lucas had a steak and a piece of chocolate crème cake. Nina had lobster and a piece of chocolate crème cake. Nina, Anna, and Lucas all became sick. They concluded that it was something in the chocolate crème cake that caused their illness.

 Proper causal inference Poor causal reasoning

5 points

QUESTION 12
1. Instructions: Choose the causal method best represented in the given passage.

Every time the creek near our house flooded, it was just after a major storm. Clearly, significant rainfall causes the creek to overflow, because it never flooded if there had not been significant rainfall.

This is an example of __________

 The Method of Agreement The Method of Difference Joint Method of Agreement and Difference The Method of Residues The Method of Concomitant Variation

5 points

QUESTION 13
1. Instructions: Determine if the given condition is a necessary condition, sufficient condition, necessary condition and sufficient condition, or neither necessary nor sufficient condition.

Investors were looking to invest their money in a secure commodity, when the stock market fell. They decided to put their money in gold. As a result of the large demand for gold, the price of gold went up.

Investors buying gold as a cause for an increase in the price of gold.

 Necessary Sufficient Necessary and Sufficient Neither Necessary nor Sufficient

5 points

QUESTION 14
1. Instructions: Determine if the given cause is best described as a remote cause or a proximate cause.

My pregnant wife woke me from a well-needed slumber because she wanted me to get her a chocolate shake at 3 a.m. Although I was very tired, I got up, searched for my wallet, and grabbed my keys. When I pulled to the intersection four blocks from my house, a car ran the light and hit my passenger door. If I hadn't been driving at that moment, then I would not have been in the accident. It is my wife's fault for making me get up and drive.

Is my wife's desire for a chocolate shake a remote cause or a proximate cause of the accident?

 Remote cause Proximate cause

5 points

QUESTION 15
1. Instructions: Determine if the reasoning in the passage is an example of proper inductive inference or by another factor.

During the hot days of summer, ice cream companies know they sell more ice cream than in any other season. When it is hot outside, people like to cool off with an icy treat. So it stands to reason, the increase in heat and the increase in ice cream sales are not a coincidence.

 Proper causal inference Poor causal reasoning

5 points

QUESTION 16
1. Instructions: Choose the method that is represented in the following form. Capital letters represent circumstances and lowercase letters denote phenomena:

A B C --- x y z.

B is known to be the cause of y.

C is known to be the cause of z.

Therefore A is the cause x.

 The Method of Agreement The Method of Difference Joint Method of Agreement and Difference The Method of Residues The Method of Concomitant Variation

5 points

QUESTION 17
1. Instructions: Choose the causal method best represented in the given passage.

When the city added fluoride to the municipal water supply, the number of cavities in children's teeth went down. When looking at the fluoride levels of other cities, researchers discovered higher cavity rates among the children of those towns with lower fluoride rates. Cities with higher fluoride rates in their water supply tend to have lower cavity rates too. They concluded that adding fluoride to the water supply is beneficial to the dental health of children.

This is an example of __________

 The Method of Agreement The Method of Difference Joint Method of Agreement and Difference The Method of Residues The Method of Concomitant Variation

5 points

QUESTION 18
1. Instructions: Determine if the given cause is best described as a remote cause or a proximate cause.

When I was 3, my father left my home country of Kenya to come to the United States. After working for two years, he saved enough money to bring us over. He taught us to work hard if we wanted to succeed. I studied hard all through high school so that I could get into a good university. I received an almost-perfect score on my SATs, and was accepted to Berkeley. While we have universities in Kenya, the likelihood of my getting an education there was small. If my father hadn't left us when we were children, to set up a home in the United States, then I would never have gone to college.

My father's leaving for the United States is _________ of my going to Berkeley.

 a remote cause the proximate cause

5 points

QUESTION 19
1. Instructions: Choose the causal method best represented in the given passage.

My grandfather smoked for 30 years and developed lung cancer. My uncle smoked for 29 years and developed leukemia. My mother-in-law developed emphysema after smoking for 40 years. It seems likely that smoking causes significant illnesses.

This is an example of __________

 The Method of Agreement The Method of Difference Joint Method of Agreement and Difference The Method of Residues The Method of Concomitant Variation

5 points

QUESTION 20
1. Instructions: Determine if the given condition is a necessary condition, sufficient condition, necessary condition and sufficient condition, or neither necessary nor sufficient condition.

Failing to receive enough votes as a condition for not being elected senator.

 Necessary Sufficient Necessary and Sufficient Neither Necessary nor Sufficient

5 points

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