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Help please help for this lab, very confused. Need this for my astronomy

class for rowan university. Thank you for your help.

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Rowan Introduction to Astronomy Lab 6 / Plotting the Orbit of the Moon Name: ________________________________________________ Score: __________________________ Objectives After completing this lab, the student will be able to use a series of lunar photographs to make a scale drawing of the Moon’s orbit. be able to confirm the elliptical nature of the Moon’s orbit by determining the major axis, minor axis, and eccentricity of the orbit. Materials Needed pencil mm ruler compass (get cheap ones in dollar stores, Wal-Mart) calculator Procedure The Moon’s Orbit As applied to the Moon’s orbit, Kepler’s first law would state that the Moon’s orbit is an ellipse with the Earth at one focus. If the Moon’s orbit is an ellipse, its distance from the Earth should change during one complete orbit. This means the Moon should appear larger at perigee (closest approach to Earth) than it does at apogee (farthest from Earth). Figure 1 shows a series of lunar photographs. These were obtained as the Moon passed several different positions in its orbit. It is possible to use these photographs to determine a few orbital properties of the Moon. Fill in Table columns in this order: 6, 7, 3, 4, 5 and before plotting your data points. 1. Measure the diameter, d , of each lunar image shown in millimeters. Be careful not to simply measure the illuminated portion. Make all measurements vertically through the center of each image. Estimate each value to ½ millimeter (0.5 mm). Record your measurements in column 6 in Table 1. (Note: These values should range between 40 mm and 60 mm.) 2. From each diameter measurement, the relative distance to the Moon can be determined. This distance will be scaled down to fit on a piece of graph paper. Calculate the scale distance, D, (in mm) to the Moon using the relation D = 4000/ d, where d is the diameter recorded in column 6 of Table 1, and 4000 is a scale factor. Record your values of D, to its nearest tenth of a millimeter, in the last column of Table 1 (column 7). Round to 1 decimal place. 3. Calculate the average scale distance, D ave , to the Moon and record your answer in the space provided at the bottom of column 7. 4. Calculate the difference in days from one image to the next by subtracting the prior day count from the next day count (column 3). 5. Calculate the number of degrees moved from image to image (column 4). Note: The Moon moves in a roughly circular orbit around the Earth. A circle contains 360°. The Moon completes its orbit around the Earth in about 27.3 days. Thus, each day, the Moon moves about 13.2° around the 360° orbit. Multiply (13.2) (number of days from col. 3) to get degrees moved from prior image. 6. Calculate the number of degrees of longitude for each image (column 5) starting at 270º. Add the degrees moved for the next image (from column 4) to the longitude determined for the prior image. When you reach 360º, start over at 0º. Round to 1 decimal place. 7. Plot the Moon’s orbital position on the polar coordinate graph paper given as Figure 2. You will have to plot longitude vs. scale distance, D. On the graph paper, longitude starts at the bottom, labeled 0°, and increases counterclockwise. This will correspond to the true direction of the Moon’s orbital motion as viewed from above the Earth’s north pole. To plot the first data point, place the edge of your millimeter ruler along the line labeled 270° (longitude). Be sure that 0 mm is at the origin of the graph paper, which corresponds to the Earth’s position on this diagram. Now measure out along the 270° line and place a pencil dot at your value of D for a longitude of 270°. Continue in this manner for the remaining data in Table 1 (columns 5 and 7). You may have to plot some points in the margin outside of the grid lines. This is OK. When all the data points are plotted, connect the points by drawing a smooth line through them (this is your orbital path). Draw freehand (do not use the compass). 8. If you examine the plotted data on Figure 2, you can see that they are NOT centered on the Earth. In order to draw the Moon’s orbit, you must first establish the orbit’s center. Open your compass equal to the D ave calculated in step 3. Remember to use the edge of your millimeter ruler to properly set the compass. Locate the center by placing the compass point on four or five (or more) of the plotted data points and draw a small arc near the center of the graph. Ideally, these should all cross at one place, the center. In reality, they will show you only approximately where the center should be. Put a dot where you estimate the orbit’s center is. Label the center of the Moon’s orbit “CMO” where you placed your dot. (Note that these steps count for points in the grading.)
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