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Given a basis of angular momentum eigenstates | l, m >, where m is the component of angular momentum along the


(a) Show that the matrix elements < l', m' | L± | l, m> are non-zero only if l' = l and m' = m ± 1. (L± is the raising and lowering angular momentum operators)

(b) Using the relation L±L∓ = L2 − Lz2 ± (hbar)Lz, show that < l, m ± 1| L± | l, m> = hbar[l(l + 1) − m(m ± 1)]1/2

(c) Using the relation L± = Lx±iLy, derive the matrix representations for Lx = Sx, Ly = Sy, and Lz = Sz for a spin 1/2 system. Combine these operators together to get a matrix representation for L2 = S2 .

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