PREFACE As part of this course, you will conduct four labs that are simulations and heavily based on theory and analysis. The other labs are...
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For my class, we have to come up with and preform our very own designed physics experiment. I am good at following directions and doing premade labs, so this is very hard for me and giving me anxiety! Here is all the information I have on the project and the questions that I'll need to answer for the experiment. Can someone help me come up with an easy and simple physics lab design that goes with these guidelines so I can do it at home? Thank you, and I much appreciate any and all help.

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PREFACE As part of this course, you will conduct four labs that are simulations and heavily based on theory and analysis. The other labs are dedicated to a term long project in which you conduct an experimental investigation of the natural phenomenon of your choosing. PROJECT OVERVIEW The project is organized into five exercises, and will be indicated by "(Project)" appearing after the title. Each exercise is a worksheet that includes instructions for you to follow and questions for you to answer, much like labs. As you progress through the project exercises, you will practice the following experimental skills and methods. To succeed in the project exercises, you must demonstrate that you have mastered these. Be sure to read the specific objectives listed for each exercise, as well. Construct knowledge for yourself using the scientific process Find patterns by conducting observation experiments Explain patterns you discover . Create a model from your explanation Express your model in multiple ways Make predictions based on your explanation Test your prediction using a by experimenting . Design and conduct your own experiment . Estimate the uncertainty of measurements . Use the language of physics to formalize your explanations

Project Ideas You are encouraged to come up with your own idea. However, some project ideas are listed below: Determining focal length and/or magnification of household lenses (magnifying glass, glasses, etc.) . Sound characteristic of music instruments or household items (wine glasses, bottles, pots, bowls). Use cell phone app to analyze sound spectrum Investigate the frequency dependence of sound wave attenuateon (dampening). Make tones, measure differences in intensity through different materials. Use a laser pointer and hair, CD, DVD to do a diffraction experiment Using a strong but flexible material, like sheet metal, create one or more sheets in the shape of a square or other equilateral polygon (Chladni Plates). Vibrate the edge of the plate while sand or another type of fine grain lays on top. What does this tell you about the sound vibrations produced in the plate? Investigate the different colors of light coming from different light sources Build coffee cup calorimeter to investigate latent heat/specific heat Examples of items that could be used as lab equipment: Kitchen scale, Measuring cup, Tape measure/ruler/string of known length, Duct Tape, Speakers, Microphone, Microwave, Webcam, Lamp, Cardboard, Insulated cup, thermometer, Stove, Timer, Pots & pans, Wine glasses, Freezer, Grain or flour, Polarizing sunglasses (or 3D movie glasses), Glasses or contact lenses, Prism, Transparent piece of jewelry (glass works just as well as diamonds), Laser Pointer (note, some laser pointers can do serious damage to your eye if you are not careful), A musical instrument, Mobile phone (recommended apps include Phyphox, Physics toolkit, Protractor, Units, Google Science Journal). Example of a Project One idea for a project is to design, build, and analyze a "glass harp". A glass harp is a series of glasses filled with different amounts of liquid and, when the lip of the glass is rubbed with the finger, each one makes a different, characteristic tone. (A similar project might be based on any homemade instrument!)

Exercise 1: Topic Selection and Experimental Design: You may select this topic and explain why it interests you. Maybe you are a musician... Research the wave concepts that apply to this sound device and submit a brief proposal that includes your understanding of the physical principles and your experiment design. o Your design might be to arrange five identical glasses filled with different amounts of water. Measurements will be made using an app on your mobile phone, and a ruler. These will be related by the formula for a closed-open tube. Make some predictions about the experiment results. Using your understanding of the physics, you can make an hypothesis about the relationship between the resonance frequency of the air column in each glass, above the water, and the length of that air column. How will you determine and measure the resonant frequency? Exercise 2: Reflecting on and Revising the Experimental Design: . Your TA might have pointed out in your proposal that you did not know what particular drinking glasses you would use. You can correct this error by going to the cupboard and selecting five glasses, taking a photo of them, and measuring the diameter and length of the inner volume of each one. You might also find that you only have four different-sized glasses, in which case, you have the opportunity to update your project proposal at this stage. Exercise 3: Conduct Your Experiment and Analyze the Results: . Perform this experiment by building the glass harp, filing the glasses with the amount of liquid you decided to use. o You should take several pictures of your experiment setup. Measure the tones that are produced when you run your finger around the rim and record the data. Graph your data. Show uncertainty estimates for your measurements and discuss sources of error (e.g. uncertainty in the ruler, positioning of the microphone). Analyze the results by comparing your measured results to your hypothesis for the glass harp. How closely do the measurements match the theoretical model? Exercise 4: Final Report: . Finally, you will use your analysis to make a final determination on the accuracy and reliability of your understanding of sound waves in a closed tube. This will be a short report summarizing all your work and reflecting on what you learned. If you want, you can make a short video of your experiment or of you playing the harp.

LAB#2: EXPERIMENT SELECTION AND DESIGN (PROJECT) OBJECTIVES Exercise your scientific thinking skills Apply physics to a practical problem Use your experience of the natural world to select your topic . . Solve problems creatively Explore your project ideas and options Practice researching physics concepts on your own . Practice modeling physical systems Identify assumptions and limitations of physical laws and models Express your model using multiple representations Use a model to help focus the work required to perform an experiment . Identify which physical qualities should be measured Identify the precision and accuracy of available measurement devices Solve problems creatively WRITE-UP REQUIREMENTS Informal: Questions - 10 pts PREPARATION The first step in your project is to pick a topic. These questions are designed to help guide you in developing your project idea before you invest a significant amount of time in it. If you have more than one idea for your project, you should go through this exercise for your preferred idea and, if you do not like where it takes you, you can start over with another idea. You must choose a topic related to waves, optics, or thermodynamics. If you are not sure if your project idea is feasible, check-in with your TA for advice, or review the project suggestions in the preface of the lab manual. You may change your project before turning in the next assignment if you resubmit this worksheet. A successful experiment is focused and well planned. This exercise will help you make progress toward an experiment that is both. One important aspect of any successful experiment is an abstract model of the scientific concept under investigation. You will create a model during this exercise that you will refer to throughout the rest of your project. This exercise is also an opportunity to validate your choice of project. If you feel like your project is not achievable as you go through these questions, go back, pick a new project, and resubmit the previous "Topic Selection" assignment before submitting this assignment.

PROCEDURE ) Q]: to scientific terms, what are the most important physics concepts involved in your proposed topic of investigation? )t Q2: What is the relationship between all of the important physics concepts you mentioned in the previous question? ll' you can. express this relationship mathematically and graphically (mg. an equation; lay-plots. ray diagrams]. l3 ) 03: What about this project topic is interesting to you? ) Q4: What type of science experiment would this he? Explain your answer. There are three types of experiments you are likely to pick: Observation experiments help you establish a specific relationship between science concepts that you do not already know; Testing experiments verify a known. specific relationship bet'tveen science concepts; 5991mm experiments apply well established science to a practical problem or under conditions you may not understand, already- Your project may not fall solidly in one category and have elements of more than one type of experiment. Pick the one that you think applies best. ) 05: What are your goals for this project? In the end. what do you want to be able to demonstrate? )' 06: At this point, what do you think may he the biggest challenge for you to successfully complete this project? )' QT: What assumptions andJ'or limitations are explicit or implicit in your project idea? All physical lasts and theories have limited applicability. State the assumptions and describe the limitations. l> Q8: What is the hypothesis you would like to test or research question you would like to answer at the end oi" your project?

3r Q5: What are your goals for this project? in the end. what do you want to be able to demonstrate? )- 06: At this point, what do you think may he the biggest challenge for you to successfully complete this project? )I 0?: 'What assumptions andJ'or limitations are explicit or implicit in your project idea?I All physical laws and theories have limited applicability. State the assumptions and describe the limitations. )- Qfi: What is the hypothesis you would like to test or research question you would like to answer at the end of your proiect? II- Q'J: To conduct your experiment, you will need to vary a particular physical quantity. This is your independent variable. [You may want to vary more than one physical quantity. In this case. pick one independent variable to discuss, here.) How will you measure this quantity, and what range of values will you use in your experiment? lb 011]: You will also need to measure at least one other quantity to do your experiment. This is your dependent variable. Referring to your model. what other quantities will you measure? {There must be at least one, but you may need to measure other values, too. List them all. even if some will be held constant.) )r 01 1: Give the precision and accuracy 111' one of your measurement devices 11' you do not know this information. how will you estimate the uncertainty of your measurements l'ronl this device? (You may need to test or calibrate your measurement device before you can answer this question.) {1} Make a diagram of the experimental apparatus with clearly labelled component parts. {You may hand draw your diagram and submit a photo of it with your answers.) {2} Build a data table [this table remains empty for now; you will enter your experimental data in the next project exercise] with all of the columns needed to conduct your experiment. You need at least one column each for the dependent variable and the independent variable. Leave enough room to record the measurement value and its uncertainty estimate or include additional columns for the uncertainties. )- QIZ: How much time did you spend on the lab and lab report?

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