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need short answer for the following: 1. What is the primary source of light pollution? 2. Why are reflector telescopes generally superior to

need short answer for the following:
1. What is the primary source of light pollution?
2. Why are reflector telescopes generally superior to refractor telescopes?
3. What space probes have visited the planet Mercury? Which one is still actively studying the planet?
4. What are the hydrogen alpha and hydrogen beta lines? What types of spectra demonstrate these lines?
6. Originally the planetary interiors were heated by gravitational energy from in-falling objects and the sinking of denser materials toward the core. Currently the interior of the terrestrial planets are too hot for the current hear to be produced by left over gravitational energy. What is the current source of heat for the interior of terrestrial planets?
7. The five brightest planets always remain close to the ecliptic in the sky. List these five planets from brightest to dimmest.
8. Two of the planets can only be viewed in the early evening or right before sunrise. Which planets are these and why can’t they be viewed late at might
9. When is the Spring Equinox (for the northern hemisphere) this year, and how is it related to the position of the Sun in the sky and the axial tilt of the the Earth (how is the axis of the Earth's spin oriented during the autumnal equinox)?

14. List four pieces of evidence supporting the existence of liquid water on the surface of Mars (during its first billion years).
15. Although Earth is the most volcanically active of the terrestrial planets, the volcanoes on the Earth so much smaller than those found on Venus and Mars. Please explain why this is so?

the following i need essays

1. In general how are the terrestrial planets similar to one another and different from one another? What conditions led to such different atmospheres for each of the four inner planets?

2. Write a brief summary of the PDF article “Forging the Planets”. Identify the “three zones” described in the article and how conditions were different in each zone

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1. What is the primary source of light pollution?
Ans. Light pollution is a growing environmental concern and it threatens to erase the night
sky before its time. The major source of light...

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