Which of the following statements are false? Why are they false?
a. Transient hypertrophy and chronic hypertrophy are both caused primarily by fluid accumulation within the intracellular space. False: Accumulation in both interstitial and intracellular spaces
b. Lifting to volitional fatigue seems to be more important for gains in strength and mass than the intensity of lifting (i.e., the amount of weight per lift).
c. After a session of resistance training, muscle protein synthesis increases slightly while muscle protein breakdown is markedly reduced, eventually leading to muscle hypertrophy if adequate protein is consumed.
d. Some research shows that very high-intensity resistance training might result in muscle hyperplasia but to an extent that could contribute to only 5% to 10% of the total muscle hypertrophy.
e. Activation of satellite cells and their nuclei aid hypertrophy.
f. Insulin has strong anabolic properties.
g. Consuming adequate protein after a bout of resistance training aids in muscle hypertrophy
h. Nutrition and exercise are effective at upregulating the intracellular signaling pathways that support muscle hypertrophy.
i. Research shows that consuming 20 to 25 grams of high-quality protein maximizes muscle protein synthesis after a bout of resistance training.
j. High-quality proteins contain all of the essential amino acids
k. The increases in growth hormone and testosterone that occur during resistance training are not important factors in stimulating long-term muscle hypertrophy.
l. The window of opportunity for upregulating muscle protein synthesis lasts from just before exercise to many hours after exercise
m. Leucine inhibits the mTOR enzyme in muscle cells, leading to an increase in muscle protein synthesis.