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14. (04.06 MC) The ... President of the United States cannot stand...

14.

  (04.06 MC)

The ... President of the United States cannot stand above the battle engaging in vague little sermons on brotherhood. The immense moral authority of the White House must be used to offer leadership and inspiration to those of every race and section who recognize their responsibilities. And the immense legal authority of the White House must be used to direct implementation of all Constitutional rights, protection of the right to vote, fulfillment of the requirement of school desegregation, and an end to discrimination in the government's own midst—in public contracts, in employment and in all Federal housing.

—John F. Kennedy, speech to the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), 1960

Based on this excerpt, in which area of politics can interest groups wield the greatest power? (4 points)

Local issues

Court decisions

Executive decisions

Wealthy corporations


19.

  (04.07 MC)

Which of the following statements identifies three factors that significantly influence choices of American voters? (4 points)

Strong party ties, a candidate's stance on key issues, and the relatability of candidates

Constituent's residential location, the candidate's level of education, and campaign expenditures

Election day weather conditions, endorsements from professional organizations, and persuasive journalism

Contributions of political action committees, advocacy of special interest groups, and mainstream media broadcasts


21.

  (04.08 MC)

A meeting occurs within a political party open only to specially chosen party members. The meeting consists of speeches by important members of the party, a discussion of important issues that the party plans to support, and the selection of candidates for president and vice president.

Which term best applies to the political function described in the scenario? (4 points)

Open caucus meeting

Closed caucus meeting

Party convention meeting

Platform committee meeting


22.

  (04.09 MC)

Which of the following is a consequence of increasing campaign costs in national elections? (4 points)

Third-party candidates enjoy greater influence in elections from PAC support.

Party leaders limit candidate campaign spending in order to follow campaign finance laws.

National candidates depend on the political support of local citizens to promote their agendas.

Parties will nominate candidates whose primary wins demonstrate strong fundraising potential.


23.

  (04.09 MC)

In Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission, ... (2010), the Court ruled that the BCRA's federal restrictions on electoral advocacy by corporations or unions were unconstitutional for violating the Free Speech Clause of the First Amendment. The Court overruled Austin v. Michigan Chamber of Commerce, which had found that a state law that prohibited corporations from using treasury funds to support or oppose candidates in elections did not violate the First or Fourteenth Amendments. The Court also overruled the portion of McConnell that upheld such restrictions under the BCRA.

—From Intellectual Property and the Internet, "First Amendment to the United States Constitution," 2014

Which aspect of the election process is impacted by the ruling in the passage? (4 points)

The continued need for the Supreme Court to rule on the constitutionality of laws

The needs of state laws to govern corporations' use of treasury funds for political campaigns

The rights of unions or corporations to overrule the rights of individuals in the election process

The ongoing debate over the role of money in political speech


24.

  (04.09 MC)

State Senator Stephanie Demarco is running for governor of the state of Delaware, and a Super PAC is formed to support her election. The Super PAC raises $6 million from corporate donors whose identities are disclosed to the Federal Election Commission. The Super PAC uses the funds to create television, electronic, and print advertisements supporting Demarco and attacking the other candidates. Super PACs are formed to support Demarco's opponents, also funded by corporate donors, and engage in similar campaign tactics.

Opponents of Super PACs' roles in campaign fundraising would point to which action in the scenario as evidence of concerns regarding corporate influence upon candidates? (4 points)

The embracing of independent expenditure committees by candidates as a means to accept large amounts of funding

The increase in funding for negative attack ads by independent expenditure committees

The use of electronic forms of communication by candidates, making it difficult for voters to determine the origin of political advertisements

The creation of television ads aired during time slots unaffordable without donations from independent expenditure committees

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