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Write the answers in essay format. Hergenhahn, B. (2014). An introduction to the history of psychology 

(7th ed.). Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth Pub.

 Chapter 1.

 

1. What is gained by studying the history of psychology?

 

2. In what ways did Popper's view of science differ from the traditional view?

 

3. Should psychology aspire to become a single paradigm discipline? Defend your answer.

 

4.   Is psychology a science? Defend your answer.

 

5.   Summarize the various proposed answers to the mind-body problem.

 

6.   Discuss the nativist and empiricist explanations of the origin of human attributes.

 

Chapter 2.

 

7. Why were the first philosophers called physicists?

 

8. What, for Socrates, was the goal of philosophical inquiry? What method did he use in pursuing that goal?

 

9. Discuss Plato's reminiscence theory of knowledge.

 

10. Compare Aristotle's attitude toward sensory experience with that of Plato.

 

11. Discuss Aristotle's views on emotions.

 

12. Summarize the reasons Greek philosophy was important to the development of Western

     civilization.

 

Chapter 3.

 

13. In what ways were the Dark Ages dark? Explain.

 

14. How did Augustine change the locus of control of human behavior from forces outside the person to forces inside the person?

 

Chapter 4.

 

15. Discuss the implications for psychology of Galileo's distinction between primary and secondary qualities.

 

16. Summarize Descartes's view of the mind-body relationship.

 

17. Summarize Descartes's view of the mind-body relationship.

 

Chapter 5.

 

18. Define empiricism.

 

19. According to Locke, what was the difference between primary and secondary qualities?

 

20. What were the major features of French sensationalism?

An IntroducTon to the History of Psychology by B. R. Hergenhahn, 7th EdiTon Outline and notes for: Chapter 1. IntroducTon ±opic: Philosophers of mind 1. Aristotle was a Greek philosopher born in Stagirus in 384 BCE. His father, Nicomachus died when Aristotle was a child and he lived under a guardian's care. At the age of eighteen, he joined Plato's Academy in Athens and conTnued to stay unTl the age of thirty-seven, around 347 BCE. His wriTngs cover many subjects, including physics, metaphysics, poetry, theater, music, logic, rhetoric, linguisTcs, poliTcs, government, ethics, biology, and zoology. Aristotle's wriTngs were the Frst to create a comprehensive system of Western philosophy, encompassing ethics, aestheTcs, logic, science, poliTcs, and metaphysics. ±opic: Historiography 2. Historiography refers either to the study of the methodology and development of 'history', or to a body of historical work on a specialized topic. Scholars discuss historiography topically - such as the 'historiography of the BriTsh Empire,' the 'historiography of early Islam', or the 'historiography of China' - as well as speciFc approaches and genres, such as poliTcal history and social history. Beginning in the nineteenth century, with the ascent of academic history, a corpus of historiographic literature developed. 3. PresenTsm is a mode of literary or historical analysis in which present-day ideas and perspecTves are anachronisTcally introduced into depicTons or interpretaTons of the past. Some modern historians seek to avoid presenTsm in their work because they believe it creates a distorted understanding of their subject ma²er. ±he pracTce of PresenTsm is a common fallacy in historical wriTngs. ±opic: History of psychology 4. Phrenology was a pseudoscience primarily focused on measurements of the human skull, based on the concept that the brain is the organ of the mind, and that certain brain areas have localized, speciFc funcTons or modules. Developed by German physician ³ranz Joseph Gall in 1796, the discipline was very popular in the 19th century, especially from about 1810 unTl 1840. ±he principal BriTsh centre for phrenology was Edinburgh, where the Edinburgh Phrenological Society was established in 1820. Although now regarded as an obsolete amalgamaTon of primiTve neuroanatomy with moral philosophy, phrenological thinking has been in´uenTal in 19th-century psychiatry and modern neuroscience. ±opic: ScienTFc theories 5. A scienTFc theory is a coherent set of concepts, explanaTons, and/or predicTons of a parTcular aspect of reality, which can be tested and supported through repeated observaTons and experiments. ScienTFc theories are used to explain and predict aspects of the physical universe or speciFc areas of inquiry (e.g. electricity, chemistry, astronomy) A criTcal component of a scienTFc theory is that it is testable and falsiFable.
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A scientfc Theory is The producT oF a well-subsTantaTed hypoThesis ThaT has been adequaTely corroboraTed by way oF The scientfc meThod. ±opic: CausaliTy 6. DeTerminism is a philosophical positon sTatng ThaT For everyThing ThaT happens There are conditons such ThaT, given Those conditons, noThing else could happen. '±here are many deTerminisms, depending upon whaT pre-conditons are considered To be deTerminatve oF an evenT.' DeTerministc Theories ThroughouT The hisTory oF philosophy have sprung From diverse motves and consideratons, some oF which overlap. Some Forms oF deTerminism can be TesTed empirically wiTh ideas sTemming From physics and The philosophy oF physics. ±opic: Philosophy 7. Philosophy is The sTudy oF general and FundamenTal problems, such as Those connecTed wiTh realiTy, exisTence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. Philosophy is distnguished From oTher ways oF addressing such problems by iTs critcal, generally sysTematc approach and iTs reliance on ratonal argumenT. In more casual speech, by exTension, 'philosophy' can reFer To 'The mosT basic belieFs, concepTs, and a²Tudes oF an individual or group'. ±opic: ConcepTs 8. A principle is a law or rule ThaT has To be, or usually is To be Followed, or can be desirably Followed, or is an ineviTable consequence oF someThing, such as The laws observed in naTure or The way ThaT a sysTem is consTrucTed. ±he principles oF such a sysTem are undersTood by iTs users as The essental characTeristcs oF The sysTem, or re³ectng sysTem's designed purpose, and The e´ectve operaton or use oF which would be impossible iF any one oF The principles was To be ignored. Examples oF principles: A descriptve comprehensive and FundamenTal law, docTrine, or assumpton, a normatve rule or code oF conducT, a law or FacT oF naTure underlying The working oF an artfcial device. ±opic: Design oF experimenTs 9. An experimenTal paradigm, in The behavioural sciences, is an experimenTal seTup (i.e. a way To conducT a cerTain Type oF experimenT) ThaT is defned by cerTain fne-Tuned sTandards and oµen has a Theoretcal background. A paradigm in This Technical sense, however, is noT a way oF Thinking as iT is in The episTemological meaning. ±opic: EpisTemology 10. ±heory is a conTemplatve and ratonal Type oF absTracT or generalizing Thinking, or The resulTs oF such Thinking. Depending on The conTexT, The resulTs mighT For example include generalized explanatons oF how naTure works. ±he word has iTs rooTs in ancienT Greek, buT in modern use iT has Taken on several di´erenT relaTed meanings.
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