Which statement best describes research evidence about self-awareness?
Question 1 options:
Self-consciousness is the opposite of self-awareness.
Toddlers are the age group with the highest degree of self-awareness.
People in uniform are much more likely to stand up for their personal beliefs.
People over-estimate the amount of time that others think about them because self-awareness is so much more powerful for the person who is thinking about themselves than for others that are thinking about that individual.SaveQuestion 2 (3 points)
The first time my very intelligent Labrador retriever, Lilli, saw herself in a mirror, she barked at the puppy she saw in the reflection. But it didn't take her long to stop barking. Being a developmental psychologist, I was curious if she realized the puppy was her, so I devised an experiment to test if she had self-concept. While she was quietly seated in front of the mirror, my husband extended a fishing pole from behind her with a dog biscuit hanging over her head. Choose which response and explanation from below make the most sense.
Question 2 options:
If Lilli lunged for the biscuit in the mirror, that would prove she has self-concept.
If Lilli looked at my husband in the mirror's reflection, that would prove she has other-concept.
Assuming no noise was made, if Lilli looked up for the biscuit, it suggests she has some self-concept and understands that it is her in the mirror's reflection.
Assuming Lilli is at least 2 years old, it would be clear that she has self-concept, as this has been demonstrated routinely in experimental situations with dogs and cats of that age.SaveQuestion 3 (3 points)
Research has shown us that which of the following statements is correct?
Question 3 options:
Self-esteem is a stable trait; it is not considered to have any variable state characteristics.
The self-reference effect suggests that people remember things better when they make a personal connection to the things they're trying to remember.
People tend to blame themselves for their failures and give credit to others for their successes.
Women tend to try to present themselves in a positive light by speaking in an assertive manner and physically leaning in during conversations.SaveQuestion 4 (3 points)
Betty and Vera are best friends who are both being treated for bulimia. Betty has come to believe that Vera's case of the eating disorder is much worse than her own case. Consequently, Betty is making a(s) _____ comparison that will likely _____ her self-esteem.
Question 4 options:
downward; decreaseSaveQuestion 5 (3 points)
Schachter's classic study can be best summarized by which statement?
Question 5 options:
Misery loves company.
Misery loves miserable company.
You can teach an old dog new tricks.
You can't teach an old dog new tricks.SaveQuestion 6 (3 points)
Which of the following statements does not contribute to Katrina's self-concept?
Question 6 options:
I have blue eyes.
I am Italian.
I am kind.
All of these statements contribute to Katrina's self-concept.SaveQuestion 7 (3 points)
Lisa is an arrogant, selfish woman who responds negatively to criticism and often cheats on her partner. What term is best associated with Lisa?
Question 7 options:
SchizophrenicSaveQuestion 8 (3 points)
Who is most likely to have the most fragile self-esteem?
Question 8 options:
Mark, who plays the trumpet, is an excellent writer, and has travelled the world.
Marcia ,who has lived in 5 different states, enjoys crafts, works as an accountant.
Martin, who is a nursing assistant, builds homes for the homeless, and loves math.
Mary, who serves as a teacher's assistant, likes grading papers, and participated in a teaching academy.SaveQuestion 9 (3 points)
The concept of Basking In Reflected Glory (BIRGing) can be used to explain why professional sports teams are so successful at selling clothing to their fans. If there were actually NO differences between professional athletes and their fans, which of the following statements would be correct?
Question 9 options:
Professional sports teams would probably not sell so much apparel.
Professional sports teams would probably sell much more apparel.
Fans would engage in upward comparisons, resulting in increased self-esteem.
Fans would not engage in social comparisons, resulting in decreased self-esteem.SaveQuestion 10 (3 points)
Assume you have a negative stereotype that fraternity/sorority members are "stuck up". If you were given an Implicit Association Test (IAT) with photos labeled as "fraternity member" or "independent", and those photos were paired with words like "bad" or "good", your responses to the "fraternity member/bad" combinations would likely be _____ as compared to the "fraternity member/good" combinations.
Question 10 options:
mixedSaveQuestion 11 (3 points)
Which of the following statements about the relationship between attitude and behavior is correct?
Question 11 options:
Attitudes predict behavior best when the attitude and behavior occur in the same social situation.
It's best to ask general questions about attitudes if you want to predict future behavior.
Attitudes predict behavior best for high self-monitors.
Attitudes and behaviors are always consistent.SaveQuestion 12 (3 points)
Peter had not met any new members of a social group he was considering joining. He overhears Pat expressing negative views of this group. Peter's attitude toward the group would not likely be influenced by hearing this negative message if _____.
Question 12 options:
Pat was a man
he likes Pat, but believes Pat's view to be unsubstantiated
Peter is generally oriented toward taking contrarian views
Peter dislikes Pat, and sees himself as very dissimilar to PatSaveQuestion 13 (3 points)
Marcus felt even stronger about his attitude regarding a school policy after a meeting with other students where they discussed the policy. This change most likely came about because _____.
Question 13 options:
others were able to explain the policy to him
he was able to repeatedly express his own attitude about the policy
he realized how the other students at the meeting were very dissimilar to him
during the meeting, the school administrator seemed ambivalent about the policySaveQuestion 14 (3 points)
Which of the following statements about attitudes is correct?
Question 14 options:
Some attitudes are universal while others are more unique.
Attitudes are primarily learned through direct experience; there is no evidence for genetic transmission of attitudes.
Attitudes have nothing to do with self-concept.
All of the options are correct.SaveQuestion 15 (3 points)
A new anti-smoking advertisement features photographs of diseased lungs, people using oxygen tanks to breath, and funerals of people who died from smoking, but it does NOT include information about how quitting smoking can improve your health. This ad is likely to be _____ effective because it _____.
Question 15 options:
highly; violates social norms
not very; induces too much fear
highly; creates cognitive dissonance in viewers
not very; creates cognitive dissonance in viewersSaveQuestion 16 (3 points)
Political scientists have shown that attitudes about political candidates which lead to voting decisions tend to be primarily related to _____.
Question 16 options:
All three of these are equally influential.SaveQuestion 17 (3 points)
Cognitive dissonance occurs when we notice a discrepancy between our attitudes and our behaviors. Which of the following is NOT an accurate way dissonance can be reduced?
Question 17 options:
We can come up with justifications in support of the behavior.
We can trivialize the inconsistency by concluding the attitude or the behavior is not important, so the inconsistency is also not important.
We can describe the dissonant attitude and behavior to a significant other person to seek their support.
We can modify either the attitude or the behavior to be more consistent with each other.SaveQuestion 18 (3 points)
Small rewards produce greater attitude change than do large rewards when _____.
Question 18 options:
people believe they are personally responsible for the action
the behavior is relatively trivial
the justification for the behavior is large
Actually, large rewards always produce greater attitude change than do small rewards.SaveQuestion 19 (3 points)
A message intended to reduce cheating among high school students is more likely to be effective if it is delivered by _____.
Question 19 options:
an elderly teacher
an attractive and popular student
a local politician who recently won re-election
All three of these are equally influential.SaveQuestion 20 (3 points)
Which of the following statements about persuasive communicators is false?
Question 20 options:
We tend to remember the content of a message more so than the source of the message.
They tend to be similar to their intended audience.
They tend to be perceived as attractive.
They tend to speak slowly.
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