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For this milestone, you will participate in a discussion in which you develop a research study design in

preparation for your final research investigation and also assist your classmates in refining their own proposed studies. This assignment involves giving and receiving feedback to your peers, who are a valuable resource to tap as you move one step closer to successful completion of your final project.


2. What is the purpose of the article?

The purpose of this article is to assess the disorders that are used as a cultural perspective. The many experiments that are presented when applying diagnostic methods across cultural contexts Impact of cultural values and prospects on recognizing and treating children with suspected disorders.

3. What is the hypothesis of the study? In other words, what claims do the authors make in the article? What are the outcomes of the study, that is, the conclusions that the authors made as a result of the study?

The authors claim that the tools used to measure behaviors of evidence are based on standardized situations and the diagnostic decisions are subject to cultural biases (Norbury, Sparks 2012)

4. What variables (factors) are being looked at as an influence on abnormal behavior?

The author is looking at many factors such as; cultural values and expectations.

2. What is the purpose of the article?

4. What variables (factors) are being looked at as an influence on abnormal behavior?

Big striatal dopamine changes which have been linked to different cortical purpose during cerebral tasks. Additionally, preclinical evidence shows that a circuit concerning projections to the midbrain and the striatum may cause abnormal behavior. Environmental risk factors for schizophrenia also lead to abnormal behavior, such as social isolation and childhood trauma.

5. If these variables or the relationship between these variables have been studied before, what have other studies found? This shows historical significance.

Other studies conducted before have shown that environmental factors such as social isolation and childhood trauma have an impact on presynaptic dopaminergic function.

6. Describe the research design (e.g., descriptive, correlational, experimental) that was used in the study.

This research is scientific; hence, the research design is descriptive. The research involves observing and describing the behavior of schizophrenia without affecting it anywhere. Since the research gives true experiments while giving true and analyzable data, the descriptive research design is the best method used.

2. What is the purpose of the article?

The purpose of the article is to find out whether the life events which are assumed to generate new mood episodes in bipolar disorder are the same as the ones which caused previous mood episodes.

3. What is the hypothesis of the study? In other words, what claims do the authors make in the article? What are the outcomes of the study, that is, the conclusions that the authors made as a result of the study?

The study found out that negative life events were meaningfully linked with both the succeeding brutality of mania, functional impairment and depressive symptoms. However, positive life events only caused functional impairment because of mania severity and manic symptoms. The authors also found out that the associations were stronger in bipolar disorder I patients as compared to bipolar patients II. Moreover, the authors concluded that mania symptoms led to the occurrence of positive life events, and depressive symptoms led to negative life events.

4. What variables (factors) are being looked at as an influence on abnormal behavior?

One hundred seventy-three bipolar outpatients who were divided into two groups (BD I and BD II) and studied for every three months in two years. Paykel's self-report questionnaire was used to asses live events, and they also looked at both monthly functional impairment due to manic symptoms and mood symptoms.

5. If these variables or the relationship between these variables have been studied before, what have other studies found? This shows historical significance.

A longitudinal study on the researcher's unit showed that life events affect mood symptoms and functional impairment especially in patients with BD I in comparison to BD II.

6. Describe the research design (e.g., descriptive, correlational, experimental) that was used in the study.

The type of research design used in this study is correlational since the researchers are after understanding the kind of relationships between bipolar disorder I patients have with bipolar disorder II. Correlation research design seeks to figure out if two or more variable are related.

7. Do you think the research in this article was conducted ethically? Why or why not? *Review the APA Guidelines for Research (http://www.apa.org/ethics/code/index.aspx - see Standard 8) and Ethical Guidelines from Chapter 15 of your textbook to support your answer.

The research in this article is ethical because the authors strive to benefit those with whom they work with by recognizing them in the research.

2. What is the purpose of the article?

The purpose of the research is to experiment with two groups, experiment 1 and experiment 2, to find out whether the global planning component from the Breakfast Task  

3. What is the hypothesis of the study? In other words, what claims do the authors make in the article? What are the outcomes of the study, that is, the conclusions that the authors made as a result of the study?

The outcomes of the study showed that the global planning component from the Breakfast Task was meaningfully connected with individual variances in executive functions, but the local monitoring component was independent of such functions. The Breakfast Task delivers a fast, enjoyable, and realistic valuation of complex daily planning and monitoring, and their fundamental processes such as executive functions and working memory.

5. If these variables or the relationship between these variables have been studied before, what have other studies found? This shows historical significance.

Past studies on cognitive processes in the breakfast task found that a degree of longitudinal working memory was a strong analyst of accomplishment in their task. Fascinatingly, Logie and colleagues, who conducted the study, used the Breakfast Task as their measure of prospective memory but found that the Breakfast Task performance did not foretell success on their multiple-errand task.

6. Describe the research design (e.g., descriptive, correlational, experimental) that was used in the study.

The research design used in this article is experimental since it was centrally concerned with conducting research that is of high fundamental legitimacy. The research conducts two experiments to find out which of the two experiments was the best to determine the functioning of the Breakfast Task.

7. Do you think the research in this article was conducted ethically? Why or why not? *Review the APA Guidelines for Research (http://www.apa.org/ethics/code/index.aspx - see Standard 8) and Ethical Guidelines from Chapter 15 of your textbook to support your answer.

The research is ethical because the authors seek to promote accuracy, truthfulness, and honesty in the teaching, science, and practice of psychology.

2. What is the purpose of the article?

The purpose of the article is to report four articles that explore the notion of recognition using words as the material. The study is to extend to the knowledge of Voss and associates by having participants study words in different ways and then attempt to recognize the words in a forced four-choice tests, whereby some did not have a target word.  

3. What is the hypothesis of the study? In other words, what claims do the authors make in the article? What are the outcomes of the study, that is, the conclusions that the authors made as a result of the study?

The research found out that the main factor which was associated with different levels of recognition was a variable measure for the subjective state associated with the guessing selection option, depending on the general struggle of the recognition assessment.

4. What variables (factors) are being looked at as an influence on abnormal behavior?

The research looked at factors such as experiments which involved awareness of memory retrieval and the level of self-confidence which influenced the abnormal behavior.

5. If these variables or the relationship between these variables have been studied before, what have other studies found? This shows historical significance.

Voss and colleagues had an earlier study on "Recognition Without Awareness: Encoding and Retrieval Factors," which showed that composite visual patterns were correctly selected as a target for a two-alternative forced-choice recognition test, although participants acknowledged that they were guessing.

6. Describe the research design (e.g., descriptive, correlational, experimental) that was used in the study.

The research design used in this research is correlational since the study seeks to find whether Voss and associates' study relates to the current research. Although the study is experimental, a correlational research design is used as it does not alter the experimental systems but only observes what is naturally going on.

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