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Refer to the class readings and provide your argument for the enswers.

Which of the following is an example of selective attention?

a.

reading a book and watching a football game simultaneously

b.

eating a candy bar while watching a movie

c.

walking and talking with a friend

d.

listening to a professor's lecture when others around you are whispering to you

 


2. Perception is defined as

a.

the stimulation of the senses by events in the external world.

b.

the conversion of physical energy into neural energy.

c.

cognitive problem-solving about emotional events in the external world.

d.

the integration of sensations into percepts of the objects.

 3.


Your ability to listen carefully to your best friend talking while ignoring the conversations around you is called

a.

auditory shadowing.      

c.

attentive processing.

b.

selective attention.        

d.

selective process formation.

 

               

 4.


Our tendency to automatically perceive a form as standing out from its surround is known as

a.

closure.               

c.

proximity.

b.

similarity.            

d.

figure-ground discrimination.

 

               

 5.


According to the principles of _____, we perceive items that are close together as forming a group.

a.

closure

c.

figure and ground

b.

similarity             

d.

proximity

 

               

 6.


Closure and proximity are

a.

Gestalt principles of perceptual organization.

b.

principles of perceptual recognition.

c.

learned through operant conditioning.

d.

principles of top-down processing.

 

               

 7.


The left and right eyes receive slightly different images of objects in the environment. This fact is known as

a.

stroboscopic perception.             

c.

binocular parallax.

b.

superposition.  

d.

binocular disparity.

 

               

 8.


The term binocular disparity refers to the

a.

distance between each retina.

b.

use of eye movements to detect motion.

c.

difference in views perceived by each eye.

d.

More than one of the above is correct.

 

               

 9.


As you move along, objects in the distance seem to be moving more slowly than do closer objects. This is an example of

a.

retinal disparity.              

c.

binocular parallax.

b.

stroboscopic vision.       

d.

relative motion.

 

               

 10.


_____ motion refers to the perception of motion when no object is actually moving.

a.

Relative               

c.

Induced

b.

Real      

d.

Stroboscopic

 

               

 11.


The stimulation of specialized motion cells appear to be responsible for our perception of

a.

motion aftereffect.        

c.

stroboscopic motion.

b.

motion parallax.              

d.

induced motion.

 

               

 12.


If you stare at the steps on an up escalator for a short time and then look at the wall beside it, the wall appears to move downward because of what perceptual phenomenon?

a.

absolute motion              

c.

relative motion

b.

selective adaptation      

d.

stroboscopic motion

 

               

 13.


Perceiving a large dark object as a cow fills which function of perception?

a.

localization         

c.

tracking movement

b.

recognition        

d.

assigning causality

 

               

 14.


Characteristics of objects in the visual field such as shape and color are called _____ features.

a.

primitive             

c.

illusory

b.

integration         

d.

conjunction

 

               

 15.


Simple cells respond to visual stimuli which are

a.

of a particular length.

b.

in a particular orientation, anywhere in the receptive field.

c.

in a particular orientation, in a particular place in the receptive field.

d.

in a particular orientation and of a particular length.

 

               

 16.


When simple two-dimensional features, such as lines and angles are combined, a new object is perceived that cannot be understood by examining the component parts. The new characteristics are known as

a.

emergent features.       

c.

spatial networks.

b.

connectionist features.

d.

network detection features.

 

               

 17.


A suitcase can be described as the combination of a cube and an arc, a pail as a cylinder and an arc, and a flashlight as two cylinders and a block. These descriptive geometric features are known as

a.

connectionist nodes.     

c.

geons.

b.

hypercomplex features.              

d.

models.

 

               

 18.


When you see your professor in the supermarket, you have trouble recognizing him. What best explains this?

a.

The relations between geons are contrary to your expectations.

b.

A familiar stimulus in an unfamiliar context is difficult to recognize.

c.

You have used bottom-up processing instead of top-down processing.

d.

Ambiguous stimuli are easiest to judge in familiar surroundings.

 

               

 19.


Because of _____, you may perceive a red ball on the kitchen table as an apple.

a.

top-down processing    

c.

feature extraction

b.

bottom-up processing  

d.

geon analysis

 

               

 20.


Prosopagnosia is an inability to recognize faces. It is an example of a breakdown of recognition called a(n)

a.

agnosia.              

c.

visual ambiguity.

b.

aphasia.              

d.

detail deficit.

SECTION B


1 Proponents of knowledge-acquisition approaches to cognitive development would argue that cognitive development

a.

involves the acquisition of qualitatively different stages of processing.

b.

relies on the acquisition of larger and larger collections of facts.

c.

relies on the acquisition of several separate information-processing skills.

d.

involves the increasing ability to organize domain-specific knowledge bases.

 

 2. The "nature" component of the "nature-nurture" question refers to

a.

our genetic endowment.

b.

the environment in which we are raised.

c.

a combination of genetics and the environment.

d.

the personality tendencies that we acquire as we age


3. A stage theory of development proposes that

a.

all individuals go through the same stages, in the same order.

b.

all individuals go through the same stages, but can do so in differing orders.

c.

because the appearance of stages is due to maturation, the environment has no influence on the speed with which individuals move through them.

d.

development is best characterized as smooth and continuous.

4. The age at which distress over separation from the caregiver appears

a.

is similar for all infants across all cultures and types of child-rearing practices.

b.

depends on whether the infant has experienced fearful separations from the caregivers.

c.

peaks at about 7 or 8 months.

d.

is earlier than the appearance of stranger anxiety.

5. A firm sense of themselves as either male or female is described as a child's

a.

sex typing.         

c.

gender constancy.

b.

gender identity.              

d.

sexual constancy.           

 6.


The debate about human psychology that suggests human capacities are either inborn or acquired is called the

a.

the information processing analysis of psychology.

b.

the associationist analysis of psychology.

c.

the cognitive versus analytic debate.

d.

the nature-nurture debate.

 

               

 7.


A psychologist who studies visual perception by recording the activity of nerve cells in the appropriate region of the brain is using the _____ approach.

a.

biological            

c.

behavioral

b.

psychoanalytic 

d.

phenomenological

 

               

 8.


If a scientist tried to analyze your social life based on the behavioral perspective, the analysis would focus on

a.

your thoughts and other mental processes.

b.

the electrical activity of your brain cells.

c.

your unconscious motivations for the social interactions.

d.

the people you interact with and your responses to them.

 

               

 9.


The _____ approach to the study of psychology focuses on the active processing and transformation of information.

a.

humanistic         

c.

cognitive

b.

behavioral          

d.

biological

 

               

 10.


Of the following schools of thought, which emphasizes the importance of unconscious processes?

a.

humanistic         

c.

cognitive

b.

psychoanalytic 

d.

behavioral

 

               

 11.


A _____ psychologist would be more interested in people's subjective interpretations of their experiences than their observable actions.

a.

biological            

c.

behavioral

b.

cognitive             

d.

subjectivist

 

               

 12.


Dr. Fisher is studying the effects of entering puberty earlier or later than one's peers on adolescent self-esteem. Dr. Fisher is most likely a(n) _____ psychologist.

a.

educational       

c.

cognitive

b.

school  

d.

developmental

 

               

 13.


Katie wants to combine her interests in art and psychology. She is interested in understanding what characteristics about an artist such as Van Gogh or Picasso might account for their particular style of art. Katie should consider taking a course in _____ psychology to begin to explore her interest in the individual differences of artists.

a.

biological            

c.

personality

b.

social    

d.

clinical

 

               

 14.


One important variable in an athlete's recovery from injury is having a strong network of friends for emotional support. What type of psychologist would be likely to study this variable?

a.

biological            

c.

personality

b.

social    

d.

clinical

 

               

 15.


Which specialty is best known for teacher training and research on teaching methods?

a.

learning               

c.

educational

b.

school  

d.

developmental

 

               

 16.


Psychology is a science primarily because

a.

it attempts to understand mental and behavioral processes.

b.

it utilizes the scientific method to study mental and behavioral processes.

c.

its intellectual roots are in philosophy.

d.

its research findings are understood only by intelligent people.

 

               

 17.


If you were to perform an experiment analyzing the statement "If you drop out of school, you're damaging your future," your future is the _____ variable.

a.

independent    

c.

treatment

b.

dependent        

d.

experimental

 

               

 18.


Psychologists typically assign numbers representing quantities to the variables they are studying. This process of assigning numerical values to variables is called

a.

assessment.      

c.

measurement.

b.

statistical analysis.          

d.

establishing significance.

 

               

 19.


The _____ method is important in beginning the study of a psychological phenomenon, prior to conducting precisely controlled studies.

a.

experimental    

c.

developmental

b.

antecedent       

d.

observational

 

               

 20.


The survey method is useful for investigating phenomena that

a.

cannot be pretested.

b.

are difficult to study by direct observation.

c.

may involve biased responses from the subjects.

d.

involve individuals rather than groups.

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