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Answer all the questions and provide an explanation for each question in paragraph form as learnt in class.

This helps us regulate our behavior through the process of cognitive mediation. We are capable not only of reflective self - awareness but also of judging the worth of our actions on the basis of goals we have set for ourselves. 

Select one:

a. Performance Attribution

b. Self - Reaction

c. Self - Observation

d. Judgmental Process


Culpable behavior is made to seem defensible or even noble. 

Select one:

a. Palliative Comparisons

b. Moral Justification

c. Euphemistic Labels

An unintended meeting of persons unfamiliar to each other.

Select one:

a. Chance Encounter

b. Forethought

c. Intentionality 

d. Fortuitous Event



Define Self-Efficacy according to Albert Bandura.

Answer: 


Fears that are strong enough and pervasive enough to have severely debilitating effects on one's daily life. 

Answer: 


According to Albert Bandura, this is the essence of humanness.

Answer: 


The most influential source of self - efficacy is performance.

Select one:

True

False


People do more and contemplate future behaviors. People not onlu=y make choices but they monitor their progress toward fulfilling those choices. 

Select one:

a. Intentionality

b. Self - Reflectiveness

c. Self - Reactiveness

d. Forethought

QUESTION 2

The distinctive and characteristic patterns of thought, emotion, and behavior that define individuals' personal style and influence their interactions with the environment are called their

a.

trait profiles.     

c.

genotypes.

b.

interaction patterns.     

d.

personalities.

 

               

 2.


Openness to experience, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness and neuroticism refer to

a.

personality inventory categories.            

c.

factor analytic types.

b.

projective test categories.          

d.

the Big Five personality characteristics.

 

               

 3.


Personality inventories are questionnaires that attempt to

a.

establish individual scores on different trait scales.

b.

establish group scores on different trait scales.

c.

establish a single score on one trait scale.

d.

are especially useful when they are not restricted by theoretical boundaries.

 

               

 4.


One of the most unique aspects of the MMPI is that it was first major personality inventory to incorporate

a.

a criterion control.          

c.

validity scales.

b.

neuroticism scales.         

d.

keyed responses.

 

               

 5.


The CPI is one of the most widely validated inventories available for use with _____ populations.

a.

normal 

c.

abnormal

b.

student               

d.

paranoid

 

               

 6.


In treating the so called "nervous" disorders, Freud discovered the most effective method to be

a.

conventional medical procedures.          

c.

free association.

b.

hypnosis.            

d.

behavioral therapy.

 

               

 7.


_____ is one major goal of the id.

a.

Avoiding pain    

c.

Punishing the ego

b.

Daydreaming    

d.

Testing reality

 

               

 8.


In Freud's theory, the ego operates according to the _____ principle.

a.

morality              

c.

moral

b.

pleasure             

d.

reality

 

               

 9.


According to Freud, our values are internalized within the

a.

id.          

c.

libido.

b.

superego.          

d.

ego.

 

               

 10.


Which principle from the natural sciences influenced Freud's view of personality dynamics?

a.

conservation of energy

b.

Einstein's theory of relativity

c.

the second law of thermodynamics

d.

Newton's third law ("Every action has an equal and opposite reaction")

 

               

 11.


If you attempt to reduce your anxiety for having thoughts that are unacceptable, you may disguise this anxiety in a disguised form. This disguised behavior may take the form of _____.

a.

defense mechanisms    

c.

libidinal drives

b.

superego impulses         

d.

sublimated desires

 

               

 12.


Who played a major role in extending and clarifying Freud's theory about the mechanisms of defense and in applying psychoanalytic theory to the practice of child psychiatry?

a.

Carl Jung             

c.

Anna Freud

b.

Erik Erikson        

d.

Benjamin Spock

 

               

 13.


The personality test that presents an ambiguous stimulus picture to which the person may respond as he or she wishes is a

a.

Q Sort. 

c.

Rorschach.

b.

personality inventory.  

d.

MMPI.

 

               

 14.


Which of the following is a major emphasis of a social-learning theorist?

a.

consistency of an individual's behavior  

c.

biological motives

b.

situational influences    

d.

self-report methods of collecting data

 

               

 15.


One of the most important contributions of the behaviorist approach to personality has been

a.

an overemphasis of situational variables.

b.

recognition of the importance of environmental variables.

c.

down playing the role of cognitive variables.

d.

detailing the role of unconscious motives.

 

               

 16.


Most current personality psychologists would identify their thinking as using a __________ approach.

a.

cognitive             

c.

psychodynamic

b.

humanistic         

d.

behaviorist

 

               

 17.


Bandura noted that most behavior occurs in the absence of external rewards and punishment so that most behavior stems from

a.

negative reinforcement.             

c.

reciprocal dualism.

b.

self-regulation.

d.

behavioral determinism.

 

               

 18.


Encoding strategies, expectancies, and subjective values are personality variables in the _____ approach to personality.

a.

trait       

c.

social-learning

b.

psychoanalytic 

d.

humanist

 

               

 19.


Through the use of _____ a person develops a system of identifying what is important in the environment.

a.

a representation             

c.

a construct

b.

a schema            

d.

a cognate

 

               

 20.


Humanistic approaches to personality assessment are designed to find objective ways of assessing a person's

a.

unconscious motives.   

c.

altruistic tendencies.

b.

subjective experience. 

d.

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