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4. it was proposed by Fechner that the idea that the physical intensity

of a physical stimulus is NOT accurately reflected in our perceived intensity of the stimulus. To measure perceived intensity, he proposed the idea of perceptual discrimination - being able to detect changes in the physical intensity itself. The unit of measure was referred to as the

-Just Negligible Discrepancy
-Just Noticeable Discrepancy
-Just Noticeable Difference
-Just Negligible Difference4. Francis Galton and Alfred Binet also developed methods for measuring and quantifying

-personality
-intelligence
-locus of control
-gender5. An example of a psychological phenomenon that Wundt proposed was beyond experimental or objective scientific methodology is

-complex feelings
-drug--neuron interaction
-altruistic behaviour
-adrenal output6. Wundt also emphasised the importance of researching individuals in their ______ and ______ contexts in order to fully appreciate psychological phenomena.

-private, social
-private, environmental
-social, cultural
-social, family7. Freud's hysteria is now referred to as

-dissociative disorder
-personality disorder
-neuroticism
-psychoticism8. What did Freud believe to be the cause of hysteria?

-neurochemical imbalance
-faulty cognition
-unconscious content
-negative reinforcement9. Freud was the founder of a form of talking therapy that aims to help the patient to coax unconscious desires into the conscious awareness. This form of therapy is known as

-behaviourism
-humanistic therapy
-transpersonalism
-psychoanalysis10. What is the key tenet of Freud's psychoanalytic therapy?

-all human behaviour is caused by the Oedipus complex
-all human behaviour is caused by unconscious content
-all human behaviour is caused by stimulus-response associations
-all human behaviour is caused by interactions with the environment11. One of the many means by which Freud analyzed the unconscious content of his patients included

-interpreting dreams
-gradual exposure
-cognitive restructuring
-interpreting non-verbal behaviour12. Freud's early ideas regarding the motivation behind human behaviour had important implications for the development of which branch of psychology?

-therapeutic psychology
-cognitive psychology
-atypical psychology
-abnormal psychology13. William James's ideas regarding psychological phenomena centred around the idea of

-a stream of consciousness
-the sea of the subconscious
-a stream of subconsciousness
-a sea of consciousness14. Two key ideas defined James's concept of a stream of consciousness:
Consciousness has evolved to be ______, in that people choose between alternative courses of action. Consciousness is also ______, in that these choices are important in helping the individual to adapt to his/her environment.

-selective, functional
-functional, selective
-transcendent, predetermined
-predetermined, transcendent15. The debate over whether our behaviour and thinking are controlled by physiological, unconscious and environmental forces versus being able to behave and think as we wish, is referred to as

-the reductionist-determinism debate
-the freewill-determinism debate
-the biological-freewill debate
-the freewill-reductionism debate16. What was the goal of the behaviourist approach to psychology?

-to use self-reports of experiences
-to objectively predict behaviour
-to condition humans to salivate upon the mere presentation of food
-to demonstrate the role of freewill in human behaviour via controlled experiments17. Pavlov's work in demonstrating behaviourist principles regarding the relationship between stimuli and behavioural responses became known as

-operant conditioning
-associative learning
-classical conditioning
-shaping18. Thorndike's work demonstrated another form of behaviourist learning, whereby organisms can be trained to display a specific behavioural response more frequently if the outcome of that behaviour led to the acquisition of a desirable reward. This form of conditioned learning is now referred to as

-operant conditioning
-classical conditioning
-positive reinforcement
-social learning19. Bartlett, Piaget and Gestalt psychologists like Lewin and Zeigarnik are examples of key figures in psychology who challenged the behaviourist notion that certain processes play no role in determining human behaviour. Which processes are these?

-biological processes
-mental processes
-environmental processes
-sociocultural processes20. A key weakness of behaviourist theories is
PART 2
What did Eysenck find in his study of therapy effectiveness?

-Therapy was effective if the therapist had certain skills—the type of therapy did not matter
-Although neither therapy fared well, Freudian psychoanalysis was found to be more effective than eclectic therapy
-Improvement was actually better without therapy than with either Freudian or eclectic therapy
-The only therapy found to be better than the absence of therapy was "eclectic" therapyQuestion 2
Which of the following is true about Neisser's book Cognitive Psychology?

-It emphasized research that had ecological validity
-Because it was published when behaviorism was strong, it required an entire chapter to defend its existence
-The title of the book gave the movement (toward increased study of cognitive variables) a name
-Its central concept was the TOTE unitQuestion 3
In his employee selection work, Münsterberg:

-Used a simulation procedure in his work for the New England Telephone Company
-Identified a number of specific tasks related to performance in his work with "motormen"
-Both used a simulation procedure in his work for the New England Telephone Company and identified a number of specific tasks related to performance in his work with "motormen"
-None of theseQuestion 4
Which of the following is inappropriately paired?

-Gilbreth—ergonomics
-Bingham—forensic psychology
-Münsterberg—simulations for employee selection
-Hollingworth—caffeine researchQuestion 5
Concerning the phi phenomenon, with which of the following statements would Wertheimer agree?

-The phenomenon cannot be analyzed into constituent elements
-Understanding it requires using the Helmholtz concept of an unconscious inference
-When observing the phenomenon, our eyes move, and it is these eye movements that provide the key to understanding the phenomenon
-It is an illusory phenomenon; we don't really perceive motion, we just think we doQuestion 6
Which of the following is not described as a trend in modern psychology?

-Increased interest in brain and behavior
-A return of evolutionary thinking
-Increased professionalization of practitioners
-An increased rejection of the importance of genetic influenceQuestion 7
In the Lake of Constance story, as the rider was on the way to the inn, what was the behavioral environment?

-He (believed he) was riding across an open plain
-He was riding on a frozen lake
-The fact that the inn was not really getting larger as he approached it; it just seemed that way
-The fact that he drowned before he got to the other side of the lakeQuestion 8
In order for insight to occur, according to Köhler, the individual

-Must be able to see all the elements of the problem situation
-Must have a large enough brain—at least at the level of a primate brain
-Must systematically try out all possible solutions
-Must see the solution being achieved by some other individualQuestion 9
In Duncker's candle problem, subjects sometimes fail to see that the box of tacks could also be used as a platform. The concept that best describes this failure is

-Zeigarnik effect
-Von Restorff effect
-Gestaltqualitat
-Functional fixednessQuestion 10
According to Bluma Zeigarnik, what happens when we fail to complete some task?

-Embarrassed by our failure, we immediately repress it
-It can be said that we have achieved "closure"
-A "quasi-need" to complete the task will persist over a period of time
-We won't recall it as well as a completed taskQuestion 11
According to the 19th century positivist ideas of Auguste Comte,

-The ability to control nature is evidence that nature has been understood
-Truth ultimately lies in metaphysical analysis
-We can never be sure of the reality of anything
-Psychology should be the study of consciousness, not the study of behaviorQuestion 12
After conditioning, a CS produces a CR. But if the CS is then presented repeatedly without the UCS, the CR diminishes. Pavlov called this process

-Extinction
-Differentiation
-Generalization
-ForgettingQuestion 13
If a dog is salivating to a 60 cps tone, but not to a 70 cps tone, what has probably happened?

-Extinction
-Spontaneous recovery
-Experimental neurosis
-DifferentiationQuestion 14
How was Pavlov treated by the Soviet Union?

-His work was supported financially because it was consistent with the Soviet vision
-He was treated with suspicion and temporarily jailed because of his criticisms of the Soviets
-He was tolerated for a while, but his criticisms eventually led to his deportation to Great Britain
-Because of Pavlov's enthusiastic public support for the revolution, he was a hero to the SovietsQuestion 15
According to Watson and Carr, honimals learn mazes?

-Kinesthetic responses are conditioned to the stimuli of the maze paths
-They rely on their sense of vision
-They don't have to learn—maze running is innate for them
-They rely on a combination of their sense of vision, smell, and touch (from their whiskers)Question 16
In the Little Albert study, Watson and Rayner investigated all of the following except

-Fear acquisition
-Extinction of the fear
-Generalization of fear
-Persistence of fear (over time)Question 17
In the 1930s, Jewish psychologists were stereotyped, with the stereotype including all of the following labels except

-Overly defensive
-Clannish
-Shrewd and calculating
-CooperativeQuestion 18
Why was logical positivism attractive to American experimental psychologists?

-It provided a means to study unobservable entities and still remain "scientific"
-It enabled researchers to avoid having to take unobservable entities into account in their theorizing
-Researchers like facts, not theory, and this movement enabled them to avoid theory
-It provided a way to reintroduce introspection into psychology, but to do it scientificallyQuestion 19
Which of the following is inappropriately paired?

-Hull—hypothetico-deductive system
-Skinner—intervening variable
-Tolman—cognitive map
-Bridgman—operational definitionQuestion 20
According to Tolman's system,

-Intervening variables are to be avoided
-Logical positivism and operationism have harmed psychology
-Before being able to understand molar behavior, psychology must understand molecular behavior
-Behavior is goal-oriented or purposiveQuestion 21
What did Hull and Tolman have in common?

-They both rejected the idea of focusing on molecular behavior
-They both investigated hypnosis and its effects
-They both included intervening variables in their systems
-They both believed that reinforcement was essential in order for learning to occurQuestion 22
Hull's famous postulate #4 proposed that habit strength increases

-Only if drive state is very low
-Only if primary reinforcers are used; secondary reinforcers don't work
-Simply as a result of practice; reinforcement isn't important
-As a function of the number of reinforced trialsQuestion 23
Which of the following best summarizes Skinner's ideas about operant conditioning?

-A stimulus paired with a response will, on recurrence, tend to elicit that response again
-Learning results from the gradual construction of cognitive maps
-Behaviors producing positive consequences tend to recur
-Learning occurs through the repeated pairing of conditioned and unconditioned stimuliQuestion 24
Which of the following is true about the IQ Zoo?

-The Brelands found out that reinforcement was powerful enough to produce the conditioning of any kind of behavior in any species
-It demonstrated that some animals were instinctively smarter than others
-It showed that classical (Pavlovian) conditioning had greater application than operant (Skinnerian) conditioning
-The Brelands found that there were biological limitations on what could be conditionedQuestion 25
What did Pinel's approach to the treatment of the mentally ill have in common with William Tuke's approach?

-Both involved seeking cures through bloodletting
-In both cases, physically restraining patients was eliminated completely
-Both tried to change behavior by using rewards and punishments
-Both based their ideas on Quaker philosophy and therefore sought to cure mental illness through religious conversionQuestion 26
The Kirkbride design for asylums included

-Keeping asylums close to major populations centers, because most of the insane came from cities
-Eliminating individual rooms - patients kept in large wards to facilitate resocialization
-A "shallow V" design, so all rooms could have decent views
-Mixing male and female patients togetherQuestion 27
What was the basic strategy used by Dorothea Dix to bring about reform?

-She would spend time in mental institutions pretending to be a patient, thenabout her about her experiences
-She relied heavily on photographic evidence
-She would carefully tour an institution, then wria detailed exposé of conditions there
-As a former mental patient herself, she was able to describe the squalid conditions from a firsthand perspectiveQuestion 28
Which of the following is true about the history of hypnosis?

-Mesmer believed that mental illness resulted from a misalignment of magnetic forces within the person
-Hypnotism has successfully cured psychological disorders (e.g., hysteria), but has failed in medical situations (e.g., surgery)
-Hypnosis is the same as sleepwalking (physiologically)
-Mesmerism relies on the power of suggestion, but hypnotism does notQuestion 29
According to the traditional psychoanalytic view of hysteria,

-People suffering from it cannot be helped without undergoing hypnosis
-The main problem for hysterics is that they are being influenced by the repressed memory of some earlier traumatic event
-The symptoms can only be relieved if the person can be made to forget the precipitating event
-It occurs only in malesQuestion 30
What did Freud believe to be true about dreams?

-The real meaning of a dream is to be found in the latent content
-The manifest content of dreams reflects our repressed wishes and desires directly
-Dreams are random mental images that could mean just about anything
-We never actually dream; we just think we doQuestion 31
Which of the following is true about Freud's followers?

-Both Adler and Jung broke with Freud over the issue of sexual motivation
-Of the original members of Freud's group, only Adler remained loyal over the years
-Jung was the most creative of Freud's followers, developing the concepts of the collective unconscious and the inferiority complex
-Surprisingly, one of the first of Freud's followers to desert him was his own daughter, AnnaQuestion 32
The most universal and common defense mechanism, according to Freud, is

-Projection
-Reaction formation
-Transference
-RepressionQuestion 33
Which of the following is true about shell shock?

-It resulted from physical damage to the nervous system, the result of exploding artillery shells
-It was most effectively treated by delivering electric shocks to soldiers suffering from it
-Myers argued that it resulted from the repression of the horrific memories of traumatic warfare
-In the vast majority of cases, soldiers showing shell shock symptoms were faking them to avoid dutyQuestion 34
Lightner Witmer

-Coined the term "school psychology"
-Was trained as a Freudian psychoanalyst but eventually rejected Freud's emphasis on the unconscious
-Was a Wundtian PhD but developed part of his lab into American psychology's first clinic
-Was an industrial psychologist best known for his Hawthorne studiesQuestion 35
According to Stern's formulation, a 5-year-old with a mental age of 4 would have an IQ of

-80
-40
-125
-100Question 36
Systematic desensitization is based on the principle that

-Relaxation responses were innate and just needed to be recognized by those with anxiety disorders
-Relaxation responses could be conditioned to replace fear responses
-The causes of phobic disorders are buried in the unconscious
-Medication is better than "talk" therapy when it comes to anxiety disorderQuestion 37
Humanistic psychologists argued that

-Our past shapes our present and future
-Self-actualization results from insight into the unconscious
-It is important to recognize that we are responsible for our behavior
-All of theseQuestion 38
With which of the following statements would Carl Rogers agree?

-Successful therapy requires that the clinician dig deeply into the client's unconscious
-Scientific methods can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of therapy
-Ultimately, the only thing that matters in therapy is that people change their behavior
-The therapist must take an active role in guiding the clientQuestion 39
Boulder model is to Vail model as

-Clinical psychology is to counseling psychology
-Therapy is to research
-PsyD is to PhD
-Science emphasis is to practice emphasisQuestion 40
The Hawthorne studies

-Were methodologically flawless, which is very hard to accomplish in a non-lab environment
-Helped support unionizing movements
-Suggested that physical factors (e.g. lighting) were more important to productivity than human factors
-Helped establish the human relations movement in industryQuestion 41
What did Bartlett and Piaget have in common?

-They were both interested in cognitive development
-They were both interested in cultural influences on memory
-They both used the term schema and they used in similar ways
-They were both prominent in America during the heyday of behaviorismQuestion 42
In his "War of the Ghosts" study, Bartlett

-Replicated the Ebbinghaus finding about the rate of forgetting with the passage of time
-Used himself as the only subject (in the Ebbinghaus tradition)
-Found that recall was influenced by the culture-bound schemata of his subjects
-Used the method of serial recall—one person read the story, told it to a second person, who told it to a third person, and so on through a half dozen peopleQuestion 43
Leahey argued that the concept of a cognitive revolution

-Would not have occurred to anyone without the timely appearance of Kuhn's paradigm book
-Is a useful way to summarize a historic trend
-Is valid, as is the earlier behaviorist revolution
-Implies a sudden change, which occurred in the early 1950s when behaviorism essentially disappearedQuestion 44
Which of the following subtests would you expect to find on the Army Alpha test?

-Mazes
-Synonym-antonym
-Picture completion
-Cube analysisQuestion 45
Leon Festinger is best known for

-The development of the theory of cognitive dissonance
-Writing social psychology's first textbook
-Developing a research program that rejected the use of deception in research
-All of theseQuestion 46
Which of the following is an example of an idiographic strategy?

-Festinger's research that was designed to support dissonance theory
-Miller's study of STM limits
-Allport's Letters from Jenny study
-Milgram's obedience studiesQuestion 47
All of the following are associated with Gordon Allport except

-Advocated the case study as a method
-Believed the "trait" was the central unit of personality
-Doctoral research not well received by Titchener's group
-Advocated an approach to personality assessment in the psychoanalytic traditionQuestion 48
Which of the following is true about the presence of women in experimental psychology?

-After Titchener's death, women started playing a major role in the reorganized Society of Experimental Psychologists
-Until the 1990s, few women were elected into membership in the Society of Experimental Psychologists
-Starting with the pioneering work of Calkins, Washburn, and Ladd-Franklin, women have always been a major force in experimental psychology
-Since the Society of Experimental Psychologists was reorganized, Eleanor Gibson has been the only woman ever elected to itQuestion 49
Watson's "dozen infants" quote is a good illustration of his belief in the importance of

-Individual differences in children
-Natural instincts
-The environment in shaping behavior
-The irrational side of us (i.e., the unconscious)Question 50
Which of the following is appropriately paired?

-Köhler—article called "Perception: An Introduction to Gestalt-Theorie"
-Koffka—applied gestalt thinking to developmental psychology
-Lewin—studied problem solving in apes
-Wertheimer—applied gestalt principles to social psychologyQuestion 51
Why did phrenology fail as legitimate science?

-it was wrong about localization (the brain acts as a whole; there are no localized functions)
-by explaining all possible outcomes, the theory failed the test of disproof
-it didn't propose a large enough number of faculties
-it never caught on with the general publicQuestion 52
In Külpe's Würzburg lab, Marbe did a study in which subjects compared weights. His introspectors found that at the moment when the judgment was made, all of the following were experienced except

-Hesitation
-Images
-Doubts
-SearchingQuestion 53
According to Descartes,

-Mind and body interact at a place in the body that is not duplicated anywhere else, namely, in the area of the heart
-Animals are pure machines; humans have bodies that are machines, but they also have rational minds
-The sensory and motor components of the reflex occur in two different sets of nerves
-The ideas of self and God are learned through the experiences of early childhoodQuestion 54
What did Terman and Goddard have in common?

-They both conducted studies of gifted children
-They collaborated on revising the Binet IQ scales, producing the Terman-Goddard scale
-They both emphasized the influence of environmental factors in shaping intelligence
-They were both committed to fight the growing threat of the eugenics movementQuestion 55
Berkeley's philosophy has come to be called "subjective idealism" or immaterialism. He believed that

-All knowledge is innate but dormant; we have to use our reason to get at the knowledge
-The uncertainty of the physical world meant that God probably didn't exist
-Our belief in the existence of the external world depends on our perception of it
-We learn mostly through experience, but visual phenomena like depth perception are innateQuestion 56
James Mill's model of the mind (exemplified by the quote about complex and duplex ideas in houses) could be described as _____; his son's model was more of _______.

-Traditional empiricism; a rationalist system
-Mental chemistry; a mental mechanics
-Mental mechanics; a mental chemistry
-Rationalism; an empiricist systemQuestion 57
Suppose you hypothesize that having a flower garden reduces stress. Using Mill's method of agreement, you would hope to find that

-Everyone with a garden has low stress levels
-Everyone without a garden has high stress levels
-Both everyone with a garden has low stress levels and everyone without a garden has high stress levels
-None of theseQuestion 58
The French philosopher Leibniz argued that

-Animals are true "empirics" (blank slate at birth)
-The human mind is more like veined marble than a blank slate, with the veins representing our innate predispositions
-Both animals are true "empirics" (blank slate at birth) and the human mind is more like veined marble than a blank slate, with the veins representing our innate predispositions
-None of theseQuestion 59
According to Robert Whytt,

-Voluntary actions are under the control of the spinal cord
-Habits are actions that start as voluntary, but eventually become more like reflexes
-Without an intact brain, reflexes cannot occur
-The spinal cord's dorsal root controls sensory processesQuestion 60
Goddard believed that Deborah Kallikak

-Was mentally "slow" but could have her IQ raised to well above normal at Vineland as a result of training
-Was the eventual outcome of an ancestor's "casual intimacy" with a "feebleminded" barmaid
-Demonstrated that intelligence was the result of one's environment
-Was the exception that proved the rule—a moron who was descended from the "good" side of the Kallikak lineQuestion 61
Helmholtz is known for

-Advocating vitalism
-Showing that nerve impulses moved at the speed of light
-Arguing that different sound frequencies were associated with different cochlear locations
-Arguing for an opponent process theory of color visionQuestion 62
Chapter 2 opens with the Ebbinghaus quote about psychology having a short past but a long history. What did Ebbinghaus mean?

-He meant that it was important for psychology to break completely with philosophy in order to become scientific
-He meant that the issues of interest to psychologists could be traced to ancient times
-He meant that psychology really has a lengthy history, but most people don't remember any of it so they believe that psychology has just a short history
-He meant that most psychologists don't appreciate the importance of studying psychology's historyQuestion 63
Phrenologists believed all of the following except

-Functions are localized very precisely within the brain
-Everyone has a different set of faculties
-There are individual differences in the strengths of various faculties
-The strength of faculties can be inferred from skull shapeQuestion 64
Broca is to Wernicke as _____ is to _____.

-Clinical method; electrical stimulation
-Electrical stimulation; clinical method
-Sensory aphasia; motor aphasia
-Motor aphasia; sensory aphasiaQuestion 65
Hearing tests, which present sequences of tones that steadily decrease in loudness, are using a method closest to which of the following developed by Fechner?

-Adjustment
-Limits
-Constant stimuli
-FractionationQuestion 66
Wundt is considered the founder of experimental psychology because he

-Was the first to be doing experimental research on psychological phenomena
-Established the most popular laboratory in Europe
-Explicitly set out to identify and establish a "new" science
-Wrote the first book that dealt with research topics of interest to psychologistsQuestion 67
How did Wundt propose to study immediate conscious experience?

-Through the use of a form of introspection that he called internal perception
-Through the use of a form of introspection that he called self observation
-Through the use of inductive observational techniques and case study
-By avoiding introspection completely and relying on physiological measuresQuestion 68
If discrimination reaction time takes .30 seconds and simple reaction time takes .21 seconds, then

-The mental event of discrimination takes .09 seconds
-The mental event of discrimination takes .51 seconds
-The sensory component has taken .21 seconds and the motor component has taken .09 seconds
-An imageless thought has occurred during the lost .09 secondsQuestion 69
Wundt's influence has been reevaluated recently, in part because of his psychology has shifted interests in the late 20th century. In particular, Wundt's research was similar to the work completed by modern-day ______ psychologists.

-Physiological
-Social
-Cognitive
-BehavioralQuestion 70
Why did Ebbinghaus use CVCs in his research?

-He was trying to examine the how associations were initially created
-He wanted simple materials that he could learn more quickly than prose
-He was only interested in short-term memory, not long-term memory
-There was no way he could measure recall if he used meaningful materialsQuestion 71
All of the following are associated with G. E. Müller except

-Helped invent the memory drum
-With Pilzecker, studied retroactive inhibition
-Made the initial discovery of imageless thought
-Most of his work involved replicating and (significantly) extending the work of othersQuestion 72
On the mind-body question, Descartes believed that

-Mind and body were two aspects of the same essence
-Mind and body were two distinct, noninteracting essences
-Mind and body were two distinct essences that interacted directly with each other
-Mind could be reduced to body (i.e., brain) - thus, he rejected dualismQuestion 73
According to Lyell's uniformitarian view of geology,

-The earth was not more than 5 or 6 thousand years old
-The earth is in a general steady state, but occasionally undergoes very large changes
-Geologic change is slow and occurs steadily through such forces as erosion
-The Biblical account of the earth's formation is correct (Darwin set out to disprove Lyell's idea)Question 74
Darwin took the concept of there being a struggle for existence from

-Lyell's work on geology
-Malthus's work on population
-His observations of pigeon breeders
-His cousin's (i.e., Galton's) research on mental testingQuestion 75
According to Darwin,

-In the struggle for existence, only the physically strong survive
-Generally speaking, the food supply grows faster than the population for a given species
-Variations within a species that are "adaptive" are "naturally" selected for survival
-There is a lot of variation from one species to another, but variation within a species is virtually nonexistentQuestion 76
Darwin believed that emotional expressions evolved from behaviors that once aided survival. He referred to this as the principle of

-The struggle for existence
-Antithesis
-Survival of the fittest
-Serviceable associated habitsQuestion 77
Which of the following was true about Romanes' work on animal psychology?

-Because he relied on introspection, he failed to notice just how remarkable the mental capacities of animals were
-He believed that dogs learned to open gates as a result of trial and error learning
-His conclusions were overly anthropomorphic
-His conclusions were consistent with Lloyd Morgan's canonQuestion 78
Lloyd Morgan believed that

-It was never appropriate to attribute mental processes to animals
-Very simple animals cannot think, but advanced animals (e.g., dogs) can use reason to figure out such things as how to open gates
-Scorpions could experience despair and commit suicide
-Different species of animals reach a level of mental complexity just sufficient for them to surviveQuestion 79
Galton believed that society should take deliberate steps to promote "good breeding." That is, he advocated

-Remedial schools for the poor
-A program of eugenics
-A social welfare system
-Equal treatment for men and womenQuestion 80
On his word association test, Galton found that

-He tended to produce completely different associations each time he went through the list
-He could rule out the existence of anything like an "unconscious"
-When he went through his word list repeatedly, the same associations tended to occur to the same words
-His responses tended to be the same as the other people he studiedQuestion 81
Prior to William James, what was true about psychology in America?

-It didn't really exist
-It was based entirely on the Wundtian model
-It was modeled on faculty psychology
-It was taught as part of the biology curriculumQuestion 82
Which of the following is true about Upham's Elements of Mental Philosophy?

-It was based on faculty psychology
-It included information about the new experimental psychology found in Germany
-It proclaimed that psychology was an empirical science
-It deliberately avoided any discussion of moralityQuestion 83
The concept of the women's sphere included the idea that

-Women, although treated unfairly in the nineteenth century, had abilities equal to those of a man
-Women could only be free of elderly parent caring if they had an older brother in the home
-Women were considered to be intellectually incapacitated once a month
-Women were thought to have a wider range of abilities than menQuestion 84
According to William James's philosophy,

-Materialism is the most reasonable belief for an educated person to hold
-First, you must establish the absolute truth of some proposition by using reason and logic; then you can decide if it is useful (or "pragmatic")
-A proposition can be considered to be true if it is in some way useful for the individual in adapting to the environment
-Any position contending that truth is relative cannot be trueQuestion 85
In the Principles, James defined psychology as

-The study of immediate conscious experience
-The scientific study of observable human behavior
-The science of mental life
-The study of human facultiesQuestion 86
All of the following are associated with G. Stanley Hall except

-Founded and became first president of APA
-Created American Journal of Psychology, America's first psychology journal
-Became first American student to earn a doctorate at Leipzig with Wundt
-Was first president of Clark UniversityQuestion 87
In her research on memory, Calkins investigated frequency, vividness, primacy, and recency. All enhanced memory, but which was the most critical factor, according to her results?

-Frequency
-Vividness
-Primacy
-RecencyQuestion 88
My reputation is based primarily on my ability as a textbook writer. My Elements of Physiological Psychology, which appeared in 1887, was the first detailed description of the new Wundtian laboratory psychology in the English language. I spent most of my career at Yale. Who am I?

-James Mark Baldwin
-William James
-G. Stanley Hall
-George Trumbull LaddQuestion 89
According to Titchener, in his 1898 paper on "The Postulates of a Structural Psychology," structuralism is analogous to the study of

-Anatomy
-Physiology
-Both anatomy and physiology
-PhysicsQuestion 90
In Titchener's Manuals,

-Introspection was an important part of the qualitative experiments
-The experiment using the olfactometer was an example of a quantitative experiment
-A study examining just noticeable differences would be an example of a qualitative experiment
-The instructor's manuals were not very detailed, a major weaknessQuestion 91
Which of the following was true of Titchener's version of introspection?

-There had to be special rules of introspection for children
-To give a description of immediate experience was to commit the stimulus error, a problem that invalidated an introspection
-Introspections could only be completed by those who had received extensive training
-It was virtually identical to the procedures used by WundtQuestion 92
John Dewey's reflex arc paper,

-Clearly identified (and named) functionalism as a school and denounced structuralism
-Argued for an understanding of reflexes as they help the organism adjust to the world
-Argued that reflex arcs could be reduced to simple stimuli and responses
-Provided strong support for Titchener's vision of psychologyQuestion 93
What did Thorndike conclude from his puzzle box research?

-He rejected the concept of trial and error learning as simplistic
-Cats are capable of learning by imitation (i.e., by watching other cats escape)
-Because they were unable to escape from the boxes despite repeated tries, the cats could not be considered to have "consciousness" or "rationality"
-Cats initially behaved randomly, but eventually used only the behaviors that worked for escapeQuestion 94
The conflict between Mills and Thorndike was in essence an argument over whether

-The laboratory was the best place to study animal behavior
-Animals can be said to show thinking and reasoning powers
-Introspective analysis was appropriate for comparative psychology
-Structuralism or functionalism should be the dominant school of psychologyQuestion 95
In the so-called Columbia bible, Woodworth

-Associated dependent variables with experimental research and independent variables with correlational research
-Distinguished between experimental (causal) and correlational (non-causal) methods
-Rejected the concept of transfer
-Emphasized the importance of correlational techniques and downplayed experimental methodsQuestion 96
Concerning motivation, Woodworth

-Rejected an S-O-R formulation in favor of the more parsimonious S-R model
-Believed that human behavior could not be fully understood without studying motivation
-Believed that because motives were personal, they could not be studied scientifically
-None of these—it was Thorndike, not Woodworth, who was interested in motivationQuestion 97
Binet called his psychology an "individual" psychology because

-He believed that psychology should focus on how individuals differ from each other
-He preferred to study people one at a time (i.e., individually)
-He thought psychology would advance by identifying "individual" laws of behavior that would apply to everyone to varying degrees
-None of these—it was Cattell who called his psychology individual psychologyQuestion 98



-explaining human behaviour based on observations of animal behaviour
-an overwhelming focus on cognitive processes
-the use of self-reported data
-its positive view of all human behaviour21. Following criticisms of behaviourism, what was the new approach to exploring psychological phenomena to gain momentum?

-cognitive science
-psychoanalysis
-transpersonalism
-phenomenology22. Which of the following is an example of an abstract structure that the cognitive approach considers underpins psychological phenomena?

-attitudes
-neuronal receptors
-nervous system
-hormones23. One of the key methods that cognitive approaches to psychology utilize in order to link subjective mental phenomena to brain function is

-implicit association tests
-neurosurgery
-extrasensory perception
-cognitive neuroscience24. Humanistic psychologists argue that in order to properly understand human nature, we need to take account of

-subjective human experience
-underlying mental disturbances
-inherent gender differences
-repressed animal instincts25. Key figures in psychology who propelled humanism include

-Laurel and Hardy
-Maslow and Rogers
-Pegg and Frost
-Watson and Skinner26. Which of the following does Rogers NOT list as a feature of a psychologically healthy person?

-spontaneity and flexibility
-creativity
-a firm belief in his/her own importance
-the will to follow his/her own instincts27. The concept that modern psychologists will usually use techniques that best fit the problem they're investigating is referred to as

-expedient psychology
-the path of least resistance
-pragmatic psychology
-the limited horizon hypothesis28. Frederic Bartlett carried out an investigation that demonstrated how the accuracy of a person's recall of details from a story could be significantly distorted by

-whether or not someone has eaten in the last hour
-the temperature of the room where the experiment was conducted
-the cultural background of the person hearing the story
-the current phase of the moon

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