QuestionsWhat did Eysenck find in his study of therapy effectiveness?
- Therapy was effective if the therapist had certain skills—the type of therapy did not matter
- Although neither therapy fared well, Freudian psychoanalysis was found to be more effective than eclectic therapy
- Improvement was actually better without therapy than with either Freudian or eclectic therapy
- The only therapy found to be better than the absence of therapy was "eclectic" therapy
Which of the following is true about Neisser's book Cognitive Psychology?
- It emphasized research that had ecological validity
- Because it was published when behaviorism was strong, it required an entire chapter to defend its existence
- The title of the book gave the movement (toward increased study of cognitive variables) a name
- Its central concept was the TOTE unit
In his employee selection work, Münsterberg:
- Used a simulation procedure in his work for the New England Telephone Company
- Identified a number of specific tasks related to performance in his work with "motormen"
- Both used a simulation procedure in his work for the New England Telephone Company and identified a number of specific tasks related to performance in his work with "motormen"
- None of these
Which of the following is inappropriately paired?
- Bingham—forensic psychology
- Münsterberg—simulations for employee selection
- Hollingworth—caffeine research
Concerning the phi phenomenon, with which of the following statements would Wertheimer agree?
- The phenomenon cannot be analyzed into constituent elements
- Understanding it requires using the Helmholtz concept of an unconscious inference
- When observing the phenomenon, our eyes move, and it is these eye movements that provide the key to understanding the phenomenon
- It is an illusory phenomenon; we don't really perceive motion, we just think we do
Which of the following is not described as a trend in modern psychology?
- Increased interest in brain and behavior
- A return of evolutionary thinking
- Increased professionalization of practitioners
- An increased rejection of the importance of genetic influence
In the Lake of Constance story, as the rider was on the way to the inn, what was the behavioral environment?
- He (believed he) was riding across an open plain
- He was riding on a frozen lake
- The fact that the inn was not really getting larger as he approached it; it just seemed that way
- The fact that he drowned before he got to the other side of the lake
In order for insight to occur, according to Köhler, the individual
- Must be able to see all the elements of the problem situation
- Must have a large enough brain—at least at the level of a primate brain
- Must systematically try out all possible solutions
- Must see the solution being achieved by some other individual
In Duncker's candle problem, subjects sometimes fail to see that the box of tacks could also be used as a platform. The concept that best describes this failure is
- Zeigarnik effect
- Von Restorff effect
- Functional fixedness
According to Bluma Zeigarnik, what happens when we fail to complete some task?
- Embarrassed by our failure, we immediately repress it
- It can be said that we have achieved "closure"
- A "quasi-need" to complete the task will persist over a period of time
- We won't recall it as well as a completed task
According to the 19th century positivist ideas of Auguste Comte,
- The ability to control nature is evidence that nature has been understood
- Truth ultimately lies in metaphysical analysis
- We can never be sure of the reality of anything
- Psychology should be the study of consciousness, not the study of behavior
After conditioning, a CS produces a CR. But if the CS is then presented repeatedly without the UCS, the CR diminishes. Pavlov called this process
If a dog is salivating to a 60 cps tone, but not to a 70 cps tone, what has probably happened?
- Spontaneous recovery
- Experimental neurosis
How was Pavlov treated by the Soviet Union?
- His work was supported financially because it was consistent with the Soviet vision
- He was treated with suspicion and temporarily jailed because of his criticisms of the Soviets
- He was tolerated for a while, but his criticisms eventually led to his deportation to Great Britain
- Because of Pavlov's enthusiastic public support for the revolution, he was a hero to the Soviets
According to Watson and Carr, how do animals learn mazes?
- Kinesthetic responses are conditioned to the stimuli of the maze paths
- They rely on their sense of vision
- They don't have to learn—maze running is innate for them
- They rely on a combination of their sense of vision, smell, and touch (from their whiskers)
In the Little Albert study, Watson and Rayner investigated all of the following except
- Fear acquisition
- Extinction of the fear
- Generalization of fear
- Persistence of fear (over time)
In the 1930s, Jewish psychologists were stereotyped, with the stereotype including all of the following labels except
- Overly defensive
- Shrewd and calculating
Why was logical positivism attractive to American experimental psychologists?
- It provided a means to study unobservable entities and still remain "scientific"
- It enabled researchers to avoid having to take unobservable entities into account in their theorizing
- Researchers like facts, not theory, and this movement enabled them to avoid theory
- It provided a way to reintroduce introspection into psychology, but to do it scientifically
Which of the following is inappropriately paired?
- Hull—hypothetico-deductive system
- Skinner—intervening variable
- Tolman—cognitive map
- Bridgman—operational definition
According to Tolman's system,
- Intervening variables are to be avoided
- Logical positivism and operationism have harmed psychology
- Before being able to understand molar behavior, psychology must understand molecular behavior
- Behavior is goal-oriented or purposive
What did Hull and Tolman have in common?
- They both rejected the idea of focusing on molecular behavior
- They both investigated hypnosis and its effects
- They both included intervening variables in their systems
- They both believed that reinforcement was essential in order for learning to occur
Hull's famous postulate #4 proposed that habit strength increases
- Only if drive state is very low
- Only if primary reinforcers are used; secondary reinforcers don't work
- Simply as a result of practice; reinforcement isn't important
- As a function of the number of reinforced trials
Which of the following best summarizes Skinner's ideas about operant conditioning?
- A stimulus paired with a response will, on recurrence, tend to elicit that response again
- Learning results from the gradual construction of cognitive maps
- Behaviors producing positive consequences tend to recur
- Learning occurs through the repeated pairing of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli
Which of the following is true about the IQ Zoo?
- The Brelands found out that reinforcement was powerful enough to produce the conditioning of any kind of behavior in any species
- It demonstrated that some animals were instinctively smarter than others
- It showed that classical (Pavlovian) conditioning had greater application than operant (Skinnerian) conditioning
- The Brelands found that there were biological limitations on what could be conditioned
What did Pinel's approach to the treatment of the mentally ill have in common with William Tuke's approach?
- Both involved seeking cures through bloodletting
- In both cases, physically restraining patients was eliminated completely
- Both tried to change behavior by using rewards and punishments
- Both based their ideas on Quaker philosophy and therefore sought to cure mental illness through religious conversion
The Kirkbride design for asylums included
- Keeping asylums close to major populations centers, because most of the insane came from cities
- Eliminating individual rooms - patients kept in large wards to facilitate resocialization
- A "shallow V" design, so all rooms could have decent views
- Mixing male and female patients together
What was the basic strategy used by Dorothea Dix to bring about reform?
- She would spend time in mental institutions pretending to be a patient, then write about her about her experiences
- She relied heavily on photographic evidence
- She would carefully tour an institution, then write a detailed exposé of conditions there
- As a former mental patient herself, she was able to describe the squalid conditions from a firsthand perspective
Which of the following is true about the history of hypnosis?
- Mesmer believed that mental illness resulted from a misalignment of magnetic forces within the person
- Hypnotism has successfully cured psychological disorders (e.g., hysteria), but has failed in medical situations (e.g., surgery)
- Hypnosis is the same as sleepwalking (physiologically)
- Mesmerism relies on the power of suggestion, but hypnotism does not
According to the traditional psychoanalytic view of hysteria,
- People suffering from it cannot be helped without undergoing hypnosis
- The main problem for hysterics is that they are being influenced by the repressed memory of some earlier traumatic event
- The symptoms can only be relieved if the person can be made to forget the precipitating event
- It occurs only in males
What did Freud believe to be true about dreams?
- The real meaning of a dream is to be found in the latent content
- The manifest content of dreams reflects our repressed wishes and desires directly
- Dreams are random mental images that could mean just about anything
- We never actually dream; we just think we do
204,222 students got unstuck by Course
Hero in the last week
Our Expert Tutors provide step by step solutions to help you excel in your courses