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21) Cognitive-behavioral theories and therapies:

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a

are very distinct from one other

b

deemphasize observation

c

stress the use of objective measures

d

believe that humans are shaped by personality variables


22) The therapist quality of being integrated, self-accepting, self-aware, and whole is referred to as:

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a

possessing high self-esteem

b

congruence

c

accurate empathy

d

unconditional positive regard


23) Understanding where the client falls within the stages of change is important because:

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a

the therapist may be able to move to goal setting without focusing on motivation

b

it helps guide intervention

c

intervention strategies are effective only for those in the maintenance stage

d

many clients have several relapses as they move forward through the stages


24) According to existential theory:

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a

individuals are responsible for their own unhappiness in that they have unconsciously chosen their life direction

b

psychopathology results form an inability to deal with the challenges of existence faced by all humans

c

people need to make sense of their lives

d

all of the above


25) Which of the following is one of the primary goals of cognitive-behavioral therapy for depression?

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a

The client is able to maintain activities even when overwhelmed with feelings of depression.

b

The client is able to function well despite fluctuations in levels of depression.

c

The client is able to identify the thoughts associated with feelings, and understand the origins of dysfunctional beliefs.

d

The client is aware of patterns of interpersonal interactions


26) Behavioral activation therapy

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a

is based on principles of classical conditioning

b

involves boring the client to the point that they seek meaningful activity

c

considers client behavior rather than discussing their mood

d

involves identifying environmental triggers for depression


27) According to existential theory, problems occur when an individual is faced with four interrelated life concerns. Which of these is not one of the basic life concerns?

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a

self-actualization

b

freedom

c

death

d

meaninglessness


28) There are five basic motivational principles that form the foundation for MET. Which of the following is one of these important principles?

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a

empathize and reflect unconditionally

b

direct confrontation only if a client minimizes destructive behavior

c

be determined to confront resistance

d

help the client develop a discrepancy by focusing on personal consequences


29) The goal of CCRT therapy is to help clients:

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a

heal from past trauma

b

to behave in a manner that results in their needs being met

c

allow unconscious issues to continue to freely surface

d

successfully avoid social interactions that are likely to bring up core conflictual themes


30) The form of psychotherapy introduced by Carl Rogers:

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a

downplayed human potential for self-actualization

b

blends the ideas of unconscious intrapsychic conflicts and behavioral therapy

c

focused on past issues much more than current issues

d

focused on helping the individual achieve self-growth rather than improving a specific problem


31) Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) is based on an etiological model that views depression as resulting from

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a

genetic predisposition

b

temperament

c

early life experiences involving attachment

d

all of the above


32) CCRT therapy emphasizes

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a

the lasting effects of childhood experiences on adult functioning

b

the need to reenact traumatic memories, often in an effort to master them;

c

the power of unconscious motivation in directing behavior

d

all of the above


33) MET puts the greatest focus on which stage(s) of change?

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a

precontemplation

b

maintenance

c

contemplation and preparation/determination

d

all of the above


34) Which of the following is not one of the core qualities that Carl Rogers felt were necessary and sufficient for positive change to occur in therapy?.

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a

unconditional positive regard

b

congruence

c

reflective listening

d

empathy


35) According to Beck

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a

it is in the interpretation of information that leads to emotional reactions

b

irrational behavior is the key to understanding psychological distress

c

depression results from inhibited emotional reactivity

d

personality styles are unlikely to impact the development of depression

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