This article reports an investigation of the orientation toward individualism or collectiv- ism of groups of people from high, middle, and low...
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Using the article below,

  1. State clearly the difference in overall levels of individualism between Indonesia and New Zealand. Please provide a brief explanation.
  2. Discuss differences in levels of individualism among the three social classes within each country. Please provide a brief explanation.
  3. Results from this study show that both nationality and class played a part in determining levels of Individualism/Collectivism in Indonesia and New Zealand. According to the author's conclusion, which effect (nationality or social class) is larger than the other? Please provide a brief explanation.
  4. Identify one main dependent variable and one main independent variable in Marshall's study.


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This article reports an investigation of the orientation toward individualism or collectiv- ism of groups of people from high, middle, and low socioeconomic classes in Indonesia and New Zealand. Analysis reveals that social class has a stronger effect on individualism than does culture. VARIANCES IN LEVELS OF INDIVIDUALISM ACROSS TWO CULTURES AND THREE SOCIAL CLASSES ROGER MARSHALL Nanyang Technological University, Singapore The search for both universal norms on one hand and for cultural differ- ences in values on the other has been pursued by anthropologists, sociologists, and psychologists for many years. Landmark research into business-oriented cross-cultural values has been conducted by Hofstede (1984). His expansive study used 160,000 responses to 32 value statements from employees of a multinational company in 67 countries. In his analysis, Hofstede used factor analysis to identify four dimensions against which the nationally held values of his sample can be classified. He labeled these dimensions "power distance," "uncertainty avoidance," "mas- culinity-femininity," and "individualism-collectivism." This latter factor de- scribes the extent to which the behavior of individuals in a society is motivated by personal rather than group-oriented drives. This factor is utilized, inter alia, by the two major value-monitoring services in the United States: Stanford Research Institute's Value and Life-Style Program and Yankelovich, Skelly, and White's Monitor Service. Riesman (1950), too, developed a similar idea in The Lonely Crowd, in which he drew together many strings of thought to form his concepts of inner-directed and other-directed people. It is not the intention here, then, to dispute Hofstede's selection of individualism as an important dimension of individuals' basic value set, but rather to challenge his assertion that it is based primarily on nationality or culture. Both Indonesia and New Zealand are included in the Hofstede study. The former country scored well below the mean for the 67 countries on the JOURNAL OF CROSS-CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY, Vol. 28 No. 4, July 1997 490-495 1997 Western Washington University 490 from the SAGE Social Science Collections. All Rights Reserved.

Marshall / VARIANCES IN INDIVIDUALISM 491 492 JOURNAL OF CROSS-CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY individualism scale, whereas New Zealand was rated at the high end of the TABLE 1 dimension. This result is hardly surprising. New Zealanders pride themselves Items on the English-Version Questionnaire on their frontier spirit of self-help and egalitarianism, whereas Indonesians call their own style of collectivistic social orientation gotong royong and If the organization I work for suffered financial difficulties and asked me to accept a substantial drop in pay, then I would look for another job.* deliberately foster the concept in architecture, urban planning, and in the I cannot be happy if any of my friends are unhappy. method of providing for medical and social services. Yet, to this author on It feels good to work as a part of a large organization. the basis of observations of the everyday behavior of academics and their I usually do what I feel is best for me, no matter what others say.* friends at work and at home in Indonesia and New Zealand, a group orienta- Happiness lies in maximizing my personal pleasure.* tion seemed to apply more to low rather than high socioeconomic groups in Ideally, I would like to work by myself or run my own company.* both countries. Hence, this study attempts to identify whether social class can I like to share my problems with my friends. It is wiser to choose your friends from people with a similar social and family background provide an alternate explanation of the observed differences in individualism to yourself. and collectivism between the two countries as judged by responses to I deeply resent any invasion of my personal privacy.* Hofstede's value statements. My happiness depends on my state of mind, regardless of how those around me feel.* The people at work depend on me, so I should not let them down no matter how badly the organization treats me. Most of my decisions are made together with relatives and friends. SAMPLE My first duty is to ensure the well-being of my relatives. *Indicates item is reverse-scored. A quota sample of males was drawn from Auckland in New Zealand, and Yogakarta in Central Java, Indonesia. Low socioeconomic class is repre- sented by rubbish collectors, middle class by bus drivers, and high class by senior university lecturers. There is good precedence for using occupation as when using the scales developed by Hsu. It was decided here, then, to use a a proxy for social class (Engel, Blackwell, & Miniard, 1986) and, although scale based on the original business-oriented work by Hofstede (1984). it does lead to sample bias and therefore representational difficulties, leaving The questions used to judge individualism (shown in Table 1) were drawn women out of the sample avoids the problems posed by the nebulous nature from the seven items that formed the Individualism-Collectivism factor in of women's social class status (Daniel, 1979). The appropriate occupations Hofstede's analysis of the responses to the 32 value statements contained chosen to represent each class were selected for New Zealand from the work within his study. The values from the Hofstede study that pertain to this by Elley and Irving (1976); as there is no published work along these lines particular factor were rephrased so that they formed a statement to which a in Indonesia, the appropriateness of these occupational categories was estab response on a 5-point Likert-type scale could be elicited. In an attempt to lished by discussion with lecturing staff at the Gadjah Mada University in remove bias, each of these seven items were formed into two statements-one Yogyakarta. Each social class category contains 25 respondents in both negatively and the other positively phrased. The question sequence was countries (150 total) and a 100% response rate was enjoyed. Interestingly, varied in 50% of the cases to neutralize any order bias. In pretesting, one none of the middle- or lower-class Indonesian subjects had ever been ques- question caused confusion and so was removed from the scale. tioned this way before and they were intrigued and highly cooperative. PROCEDURE INSTRUMENT The questions were designed in English, then translated into the Indone- Individualism-collectivism scales have been described in the recent cross- sian national language by a bilingual research student before being translated cultural research literature (Bond, Leung, & Wan, 1982; Hofstede, 1980; Hsu, back into English by another bilingual research student. No anomalies or 1970; Leung & Iwawaki, 1988), but their use has yielded only mixed success. errors were identified. Leung & Iwawaki (1988) obtained a maximum Cronbach's alpha of only 0.63 Page 2 of 6

Marshall I VARlANCES 1N INDIVDUALISM 496 For the field work, questions were written on cards and responses to them were obtained orally from subjects and recorded immediately by the re- searcher (who speaks both languages). All interviews were conducted in the relevant workplaces during business hours; all data were collected within a 2-month period. METHOD OF ANALYSIS Question means were computed and then summed to yield a single mean score torepresent individualism. Cronbach's alpha for the scale applied is .83 in New Zealand and .69 in Indonesia. To remove any bias that could result from tendencies to answer the 5-point scale differently in the two cultures (the standard deviation of the scale mean for the Indonesian data is 1.61 and for the New Zealand data is 1.09). within—country Z scores were computed. A 2 X 3 factorial design was used to compare culture to social class using SPSS two-way ANOVA. RESULTS The suggestion that social class plays a larger pan in determining indi- vidualism than does nationality in this instance is supported by the ANOVA results. Amaineffectfornationalityisprewnt(F=405.¢'= 1. meansquares: 17.3, p < .01), thus apparently vindicating Hofslede's original claim; however, the main effect of social class is stronger (F = 764. df= 1. mean squares = 32.7. p < .01). A significant interactive effect can also be observed (F = 35.2, df= 2, mean squares: 116.11 < '01). The comparison of Individualism, represented by the normalized mean scores of the two cultures by social class. is illustrated in Figure 1. DISCUSSION The limitations of this study are fairly severe, particularly with regard to the small sample size. lack of representativeness. and the need to undertake further validation work on the scale itself. It is clear that a much more comprehensive instrument would be useful to validate the present scale that is based so firmly on Hofstede's individualism factor. There is a danger, too. in taking one factor from Hofstede's study and developing it outside the '94 JOURNAL OF CROSS—CULTURAL PSYCHOIDGY Individnl'mn 1.5 +lmmsia +Nemeland MiddeSocialGas Higt Figure l: Plotted Z-Seore Mum Individualism by Culture and Social Clue framework in which it was derived. A study of significantly more value (and scope) than that reported here could be undertaken to test the 32 original value statements across social class in the two countries. In spite of these reservations, the results do appear to be strong enough that a few preliminary comments can reasonably be made. Social class can almost be considered as a component pan of culture; certainly the values relating to the one culture are very hard to distinguish from those of the other culture. The advantage in so doing, however. is significant. Changes in class structure may be easier to forecast in the short—term than changes in social values. Thus. for instance. it is readily identifiable that in response to free market economic policies. the tradionally egalitarian New Zealand society has fragmented into a more stratified form over the last few years. Similarly. observers in Indonesia have noted the growth of an educated and relatively well-off middle class (Department of Information. Republic of Indonesia. 1988, p. 122). With respect to overall individualism values, the nations may be becoming more similar.

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