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Rhonda has recently started complaining that she is having a hard time getting to sleep at night. Kiki, her roommate and a psychology major, learned in class that the best advice to give Rhonda is to

Group of answer choices

play soothing music at bedtime.

stop trying to go to sleep and find something else to do.

take a sleeping pill each night.

at bedtime, review all of the health benefits associated with getting adequate sleep.

 

 

Which of the following is not a characteristic symptom of schizophrenia?

Group of answer choices

A distorted perception of reality

Profound disruption of basic psychological processes

Altered or blunted emotion

Pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others

 

 

 

__________ excite activity of the central nervous system, resulting in heightened arousal and activity levels.

Group of answer choices

Stimulants

Hallucinogens

Narcotics

Depressants

 

 

 

When Mary is very angry and upset about something that happened in her life, she spends the day fervently cleaning her apartment. According to the psychodynamic theory of personality, Mary's ego is employing which of the following defense mechanisms? 

Group of answer choices

Projection

Displacement

Reaction formation

Sublimation

 

 

 

You have three identically sized crackers. You place two of them in front of you and one in front of a child who is in Piaget's preoperational stage. The child agrees that you have more crackers than he does. If you now break the child's cracker into two equal pieces and ask who has more, he will say

Group of answer choices

you still have more.

he has more.

you both have the same.

his crackers are smaller.

 

 

A person in Kohlberg's __________ stage of moral development would avoid an action because it would result in punishment.

Group of answer choices

postconventional

conventional

preconventional

autonomous

 

 

 

At about 3-4 years of age, child psychologists say that children start to form a theory of mind. This means that they

Group of answer choices

can solve Piaget's conservation tasks.

show strong emotional reactions to separation from their primary caretaker.

realize that others may hold false beliefs.

believe the "badness" of an action is determined by its consequences.

 

 

 

For the most part, dreaming occurs during what sleep stage?

Group of answer choices

REM

NREM-3

NREM-2

NREM-1

 

 

By age 65, a person would be most likely to experience a cognitive decline in the ability to

Group of answer choices

pick out the correct name of their third-grade teacher from a list.

successfully perform a skill (e.g., knitting) that they had learned early in life but had not done in the past 20 years.

recognize their third-grade teacher at a class reunion.

recall the name of their third grade teacher.

 

 

 

In studies using Mary Ainsworth's Strange Situation, toddlers with resistant attachment

Group of answer choices

are equally comfortable with the mother and a stranger.

have periods of unresponsiveness along with spurts of sudden emotion at the beginning of the procedure.

may go so far as to hit the mother when she returns.

calm down quickly when the mother returns.

 

 

Payne's research study involved white participants responding to whether a wrench or a gun was flashed quickly on the screen in the presence of either a white or black face also on the screen. He found that mistaking a wrench for a gun in the presence of a black face had the highest error rate.

Group of answer choices

False

True

 

 

 

A projective test is a(n)

Group of answer choices

observational test used by employers to measure people's behavior and infer their personalities.

personality inventory primarily used to assess social deviance.

method used to assess personality and psychopathology that involves asking the test taker to make sense of an ambiguous stimulus.

bias in responding to questions that arise because people try to make themselves "look good."

 

 

 

In an experiment, two groups of participants are asked to solve puzzles while a loud buzzer randomly sounds in the room. Group A is told they can quiet the buzzer by pushing a button -- which they never do. Group B is given no instructions about quieting the buzzer. Why is Group A's performance on the puzzle task typically better than Group B's?

Group of answer choices

Group A is showing resistance to stress, predicted by Selye's general adaptation syndrome (GAS).

Group A has perceived control over the source of performance-impeding stress.

The buzzer has become a chronic stressor for Group B.

Group B is working in a different environment.

 

 

 

Which of the following is not a common criticism of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)?

Group of answer choices

It doesn't explain why psychological disorders arise.

It fails to increase the consistency of diagnoses across mental health clinicians.

Some of the criteria for different disorders overlap considerably, making distinct diagnoses difficult.

It doesn't describe the best way to treat psychological disorders.

 

 

 

The fact that you interpret an office co-worker's long, leisurely lunch break in the cafeteria as laziness while a colleague views it as a way for the co-worker to catch up with what other people are working on supports the __________ approach to personality.

Group of answer choices

psychodynamic

trait

social-cognitive

humanistic-existential

 

 

 

Which of the following 50-year-olds is most likely to die at an earlier age?

Group of answer choices

Bert, who has been married to the same woman for 20 years.

Janie, who has been married to the same man for 12 years.

John, who has never been married.

Carol, who was married for 15 years but is now divorced.

 

 

The __________ approach to personality uses various terms to characterize differences among people.

Group of answer choices

psychodynamic

humanistic

cognitive

trait

 

 

 

__________ refers to our knowledge of ourselves, while __________ refers to whether we like ourselves.

Group of answer choices

Self-concept; self-esteem

Self-esteem; self-concept

Self-concept; self-verification

Self-concept; narcissism

 

 

 

According to Freud, why do fixations occur throughout the psychosexual stages?

Group of answer choices

Because of overindulgence in pleasurable experiences at a given stage.

Because of either deprivation or indulgence in pleasurable experiences at a given stage.

Because of deprivation of pleasurable experiences associated with each stage.

Because of an optimal amount of pleasurable experiences at each stage.

 

 

In the Freudian unconscious, the __________ is responsible for balancing out the conflict between the __________.

Group of answer choices

id; ego and superego

ego; id and superego

superego; id and ego

id; ego and itself

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