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SPSS HOMEWORK 4 INSTRUCTIONS

Two-Way ANOVA

Part One:

Note: For the two-way ANOVA, you will be expected to create a line graph as covered in the SPSS tutorial in the Course Content (and not a boxplot as in the textbook). This applies to future cumulative questions as well.

Green & Salkind: Lesson 26, Exercises 1, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8

The following helpful tips are numbered to correspond with the exercise number to which they refer (a dash indicates that no tips are needed):

1. Instead of identifying these values on your output, as the text states, please write them into your Word file as written answers for #1 a, b, c, and d. (2 pts for output; a-d = 2 pts each)

4. Produce a line graph instead of a boxplot for this problem. Follow directions in course SPSS tutorial for setting up a line graph. (2 pts)

5. ------- (2 pts)

6. ------- (2 pts)

7. All homework “Results sections” should follow the example given in the Course Content document “Writing Results of Statistical Tests in APA Format” (note: you do not have to refer to a figure). (2 pts)

8. Produce a line graph instead of a boxplot for this problem. Follow directions in course SPSS tutorial for setting up a line graph. (2 pts)

Part Two:

1. A health psychologist is interested in the effects of exercise on stress in people who regularly exercise. Specifically, she is interested in the type of exercise as well as the time of day that the individual exercises. She recruits participants from a local health club who regularly participate in one of three types of exercise: swimming, aerobics, and tennis. She further divides these participants by whether they exercise in the morning or the evening. She then administers a questionnaire to each individual assessing their self-reported stress level. (HIGHER SCORE = HIGHER STRESS). Conduct a two-way ANOVA to analyze these data. Use Tukey’s test in order to conduct any necessary post hoc analyses if there are significant main effects. You do not have to follow up on significant interactions at this time.

The steps will be the same as the ones you have been practicing in Part One of the assignment—the only difference is that you are now responsible for creating the data file as well. Remember to name and define your variables under the “Variable View,” then return to the “Data View” to enter the data. (2 pts for output, - 1 pt if no post hoc)

Morning Swimming Aerobics Tennis

10

16

12

16

9 19

21

16

18

17

21

18

14

Evening 14

13

8

12

12 17

12

14

9

10 12

15

19

14

2. Write an APA-style results section describing the outcome. All homework “Results sections” should follow the example given in the Course Content document “Writing Results of Statistical Tests in APA Format” (note: you do not have to refer to a figure). For the two-way ANOVA, be sure to include statistical statements concerning the F ratios and p values for both main effects and the interaction, and interpretation statements about all 3 of these effects. (2 pts)

3. Is there a significant interaction effect? (2 pts)

4. Based on your results, is there one type of exercise that seems more effective in reducing stress than the others? Remember that higher scores = higher stress. (2 pts)

This assignment is due by 11:59 p.m. (ET) on Monday of Module/Week 4.

Part Three: Cumulative Homework

1. An investigator in child development research is studying the development of object permanence – the understanding that an object still exists even if its out of sight. She tests three groups of infants – ten who are 9 months old, 8 who are 12 months old, and 10 who are 15 months old. She presents each of the infants with 10 trials. On each trial, a toy is first shown to the child and then covered with a piece of cloth. The infant demonstrates object permanence if he or she looks for the object when it’s covered. Each infant is given a score for the number of trials (out of 10) on which he or she shows object permanence. Is there a significant difference between the groups on demonstrations of object permanence? Choose the correct test to analyze this question, set up the SPSS file, and run the analysis. Follow the directions under the table below.

9 Months 8, 3, 4, 6, 5, 4, 9, 2, 0, 1

12 Months 10, 5, 6, 7, 6, 5, 10, 3

15 Months 10, 8, 9, 9, 8, 7, 9, 6, 6, 8

a) Paste appropriate SPSS output. (2 pts)

b) Paste appropriate SPSS graph. (2 pts)

c) Write an APA-style results section describing the outcome. All homework “Results sections” should follow the example given in the Course Content document “Writing Results of Statistical Tests in APA Format” (note: you do not have to refer to a figure). (2 pts)

2. A researcher wanted to investigate whether there was a difference in satisfaction ratings in an assisted living facility between residents who had a pet with them vs. those who did not have a pet. She administered a scale asking them to rate their overall satisfaction with the facility. Did having a pet have an impact on the residents’ overall satisfaction levels? Choose the correct test to analyze this question, set up the SPSS file, and run the analysis. Follow the directions under the table below (on next page).

Pet

47

42

35

46

49

39

40

46

52

40

No Pet

30

25

24

42

28

25

a) Paste appropriate SPSS output. (2 pts)

b) Paste appropriate SPSS graph. (2 pts)

c) Write an APA-style results section describing the outcome. All homework “Results sections” should follow the example given in the Course Content document “Writing Results of Statistical Tests in APA Format” (note: you do not have to refer to a figure). (2 pts)

********FOR # 7*****

5. Two-way factorial ANOVA (Module/Week 4): difference between means, two variables define the groups/samples; each variable has at least two “levels” (division into groups). The different combinations of levels consist of different participants who received different treatments or have other differences that separate them. Scores will appear as a table of scores, with the levels of one variable in the rows and the levels of the other variable in the columns. However, in SPSS, the file will be set up with a grouping variable in Column 1 (for the first grouping variable, containing 1s, 2s, etc.) AND a grouping variable in Column 2 (for the second grouping variable, containing 1s, 2s, etc.). Finally, the dependent/test variable will appear in Column 3 (containing the corresponding scores all in one column).

Example: A developmental psychologist wants to know if the number of driving mistakes is affected by the type of driving course attended (public/community, high school, private) and the gender (male/female) of the instructor. Participants are randomly assigned to attend one of the types of driving courses with either a male or female instructor, such that the groups are as follows: public/male, public/female, high school/male, high school/female, private/male, private/female. After attending the courses, participants are placed in driving simulators and the number of mistakes is recorded.

6. Pearson correlation (Pearson r) (Module/Week 5): relationship between two or more variables. Here the question is not about a difference between means of samples, but the direction of relationship between the variables (positive, negative, none). Scores will appear as two columns, one for each of the variables.

Example: To determine the relationship between SAT scores and GPAs of college freshmen, a researcher collects data on both variables for a total of 75 participants. Are the variables significantly related?

SPSS HOMEWORK 4 INSTRUCTIONS

Two-Way ANOVA

Part One:

Note: For the two-way ANOVA, you will be expected to create a line graph as covered in the SPSS tutorial in the Course Content (and not a boxplot as in the textbook). This applies to future cumulative questions as well.

Green & Salkind: Lesson 26, Exercises 1, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8

The following helpful tips are numbered to correspond with the exercise number to which they refer (a dash indicates that no tips are needed):

1. Instead of identifying these values on your output, as the text states, please write them into your Word file as written answers for #1 a, b, c, and d. (2 pts for output; a-d = 2 pts each)

4. Produce a line graph instead of a boxplot for this problem. Follow directions in course SPSS tutorial for setting up a line graph. (2 pts)

5. ------- (2 pts)

6. ------- (2 pts)

7. All homework “Results sections” should follow the example given in the Course Content document “Writing Results of Statistical Tests in APA Format” (note: you do not have to refer to a figure). (2 pts)

8. Produce a line graph instead of a boxplot for this problem. Follow directions in course SPSS tutorial for setting up a line graph. (2 pts)

Part Two:

1. A health psychologist is interested in the effects of exercise on stress in people who regularly exercise. Specifically, she is interested in the type of exercise as well as the time of day that the individual exercises. She recruits participants from a local health club who regularly participate in one of three types of exercise: swimming, aerobics, and tennis. She further divides these participants by whether they exercise in the morning or the evening. She then administers a questionnaire to each individual assessing their self-reported stress level. (HIGHER SCORE = HIGHER STRESS). Conduct a two-way ANOVA to analyze these data. Use Tukey’s test in order to conduct any necessary post hoc analyses if there are significant main effects. You do not have to follow up on significant interactions at this time.

The steps will be the same as the ones you have been practicing in Part One of the assignment—the only difference is that you are now responsible for creating the data file as well. Remember to name and define your variables under the “Variable View,” then return to the “Data View” to enter the data. (2 pts for output, - 1 pt if no post hoc)

Morning Swimming Aerobics Tennis

10

16

12

16

9 19

21

16

18

17

21

18

14

Evening 14

13

8

12

12 17

12

14

9

10 12

15

19

14

2. Write an APA-style results section describing the outcome. All homework “Results sections” should follow the example given in the Course Content document “Writing Results of Statistical Tests in APA Format” (note: you do not have to refer to a figure). For the two-way ANOVA, be sure to include statistical statements concerning the F ratios and p values for both main effects and the interaction, and interpretation statements about all 3 of these effects. (2 pts)

3. Is there a significant interaction effect? (2 pts)

4. Based on your results, is there one type of exercise that seems more effective in reducing stress than the others? Remember that higher scores = higher stress. (2 pts)

This assignment is due by 11:59 p.m. (ET) on Monday of Module/Week 4.

Part Three: Cumulative Homework

1. An investigator in child development research is studying the development of object permanence – the understanding that an object still exists even if its out of sight. She tests three groups of infants – ten who are 9 months old, 8 who are 12 months old, and 10 who are 15 months old. She presents each of the infants with 10 trials. On each trial, a toy is first shown to the child and then covered with a piece of cloth. The infant demonstrates object permanence if he or she looks for the object when it’s covered. Each infant is given a score for the number of trials (out of 10) on which he or she shows object permanence. Is there a significant difference between the groups on demonstrations of object permanence? Choose the correct test to analyze this question, set up the SPSS file, and run the analysis. Follow the directions under the table below.

9 Months 8, 3, 4, 6, 5, 4, 9, 2, 0, 1

12 Months 10, 5, 6, 7, 6, 5, 10, 3

15 Months 10, 8, 9, 9, 8, 7, 9, 6, 6, 8

a) Paste appropriate SPSS output. (2 pts)

b) Paste appropriate SPSS graph. (2 pts)

c) Write an APA-style results section describing the outcome. All homework “Results sections” should follow the example given in the Course Content document “Writing Results of Statistical Tests in APA Format” (note: you do not have to refer to a figure). (2 pts)

2. A researcher wanted to investigate whether there was a difference in satisfaction ratings in an assisted living facility between residents who had a pet with them vs. those who did not have a pet. She administered a scale asking them to rate their overall satisfaction with the facility. Did having a pet have an impact on the residents’ overall satisfaction levels? Choose the correct test to analyze this question, set up the SPSS file, and run the analysis. Follow the directions under the table below (on next page).

Pet

47

42

35

46

49

39

40

46

52

40

No Pet

30

25

24

42

28

25

a) Paste appropriate SPSS output. (2 pts)

b) Paste appropriate SPSS graph. (2 pts)

c) Write an APA-style results section describing the outcome. All homework “Results sections” should follow the example given in the Course Content document “Writing Results of Statistical Tests in APA Format” (note: you do not have to refer to a figure). (2 pts)

********FOR # 7*****

5. Two-way factorial ANOVA (Module/Week 4): difference between means, two variables define the groups/samples; each variable has at least two “levels” (division into groups). The different combinations of levels consist of different participants who received different treatments or have other differences that separate them. Scores will appear as a table of scores, with the levels of one variable in the rows and the levels of the other variable in the columns. However, in SPSS, the file will be set up with a grouping variable in Column 1 (for the first grouping variable, containing 1s, 2s, etc.) AND a grouping variable in Column 2 (for the second grouping variable, containing 1s, 2s, etc.). Finally, the dependent/test variable will appear in Column 3 (containing the corresponding scores all in one column).

Example: A developmental psychologist wants to know if the number of driving mistakes is affected by the type of driving course attended (public/community, high school, private) and the gender (male/female) of the instructor. Participants are randomly assigned to attend one of the types of driving courses with either a male or female instructor, such that the groups are as follows: public/male, public/female, high school/male, high school/female, private/male, private/female. After attending the courses, participants are placed in driving simulators and the number of mistakes is recorded.

6. Pearson correlation (Pearson r) (Module/Week 5): relationship between two or more variables. Here the question is not about a difference between means of samples, but the direction of relationship between the variables (positive, negative, none). Scores will appear as two columns, one for each of the variables.

Example: To determine the relationship between SAT scores and GPAs of college freshmen, a researcher collects data on both variables for a total of 75 participants. Are the variables significantly related?

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