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Can someone please help me with the Indiana University Bloomington Plagiarism Test. I need to pass it for a grade and I have taken the test at least 10 times. 

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

Learning is a complex set of processes that may vary according to the developmental level of the learner, the nature of the task, and the context in which the learning is to occur. As already indicated, no one theory can capture all the variables involved in learning.

References:
Gredler, M. E. (2001). Learning and instruction: Theory into practice (4th Ed.). Upper Saddle, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

A learning theory, there, comprises a set of constructs linking observed changes in performance with what is thought to bring about those changes.

References:
Driscoll, M. P. (2000). Psychology of learning for instruction (2nd Ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

A learning theory is made up of a set of constructs linking observed changes in performance with whatever is thought to bring about those changes. Therefore since learning is a complex set of processes that may vary according to the developmental level of the learner, the nature of the task, and the context in which the learning is to occur, it is apparent that no one theory can capture all the variables involved in learning.


Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

 Word-for-Word plagiarism

 Paraphrasing plagiarism

 This is not plagiarism

Hints

Item 2

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

The philosophical position known as constructivismviews knowledge as a human construction. The various perspectives within constructivism are based on the premise that knowledge is not part of an objective, external reality that is separate from the individual. Instead, human knowledge, whether the bodies of content in public disciplines (such as mathematics or sociology) or knowledge of the individual learner; is a human construction.

References:
Gredler, M. E. (2001). Learning and instruction: Theory into practice (4th Ed.). Upper Saddle, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Constructivist philosophers assert that knowledge is made by humans themselves. Knowledge is not "out there" in some external reality separate from us. It is we humans who create the content in disciplines such as math and biology. That knowledge would not exist without people making it.

 

References:
Gredler, M. E. (2001). Learning and instruction: Theory into practice (4th Ed.). Upper Saddle, NJ: Prentice-Hall.


Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

 Word-for-Word plagiarism

 Paraphrasing plagiarism

 This is not plagiarism

Hints

Item 3

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

There is a design methodology called rapid prototyping, which has been used successfully in software engineering. Given similarities between software design and instructional design, we argue that rapid prototyping is a viable method for instructional design, especially for computer-based instruction.

References:
Tripp, S. D., & Bichelmeyer, B. A. (1990). Rapid prototyping: An alternative instructional design strategy. Educational Technology Research and Development, 38(1), 31-44.

Tripp and Bichelmeyer (1990) suggested that rapid prototyping could be an advantageous methodology for developing innovative computer-based instruction. They noted that this approach has been used successfully in software engineering; hence, rapid prototyping could also be a viable method for instructional design due to many parallels between software design and instructional design.


References:
Tripp, S. D., & Bichelmeyer, B. A. (1990). Rapid prototyping: An alternative instructional design strategy. Educational Technology Research and Development, 38(1), 31-44.


Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

 Word-for-Word plagiarism

 Paraphrasing plagiarism

 This is not plagiarism

Hints

Item 4

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

A teacher is one who guides or leads. To guide does not necessarily mean to instruct directly. We often think of teaching as direct instruction (presenting information, asking questions, giving feedback, demonstrating some procedure, evaluating student progress, and so on). But a teacher can guide without instructing directly. A good example is the Montessori system of education. In a Montessori school, most of what a child learns is through interacting with a variety of curriculum materials in a particular context. A Montessori teacher does much less direct instruction than do teachers in traditional schools.

References:
Frick, T. (1991). Restructuring education through technology. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation.

 

Teachers should be guides or leaders. In the role of a guide, a teacher does less presenting of information, demonstrating and providing feedback. For example, in a Montessori school, most student learning occurs through interaction with a variety of class materials, rather than interaction with a teacher.


Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

 Word-for-Word plagiarism

 Paraphrasing plagiarism

 This is not plagiarism

Hints

Item 5

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

Educational researchers, policymakers, and practitioners agree that educational research is often divorced from the problems and issues of everyday practice--a split that creates a need for new research approaches that speak directly to problems of practice (National Research Council [NRC], 2002) and that lead to the development of "usable knowledge" (Lagemann, 2002). Design-based research (Brown, 1992; Collins, 1992) is an emerging paradigm for the study of learning in context through the systematic design and study of instructional strategies and tools. We argue that design-based research can help create and extend knowledge about developing, enacting, and sustaining innovative learning environments.

References:
DBRC (Design-Based Research Collective). (2003). Design-based research: An emerging paradigm for educational inquiry. Educational Researcher, 32(1), 5-8.

A decade later, researchers interested in studying learning in naturalistic settings (inspired by Brown's approach) began a concerted effort to define the standards and argue the legitimacy of this type of research through design. For example, the Design-Based Research Collective defined design-based research (DBR) as "an emerging paradigm for the study of learning in context, through the systematic design and study of instructional strategies and tools" (DBRC, 2003, p. 5).

 

References:
DBRC (Design-Based Research Collective). (2003). Design-based research: An emerging paradigm for educational inquiry. Educational Researcher, 32(1), 5-8.


Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

 Word-for-Word plagiarism

 Paraphrasing plagiarism

 This is not plagiarism

Hints

Item 6

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

Computer-mediated learning products-whether they are guided practice exercises, tutorials, simulations, games, hypertext, multimedia or Web documents merely carry out the directives (rules. programs, scripts. mark-ups) from a human tutor who originally designed the particular instructional or informational system and its subject matter. A computer system has no idea of the meanings of the messages (i.e., groups of "signs") being sent back and forth between the tutor and students. A computer system is a medium which conveys those human messages.

References:
Frick, T. (1997). Artificially intelligent tutoring systems: what computers can and can't know.Journal of Educational Computing Research, 16(2), 107-124. Web supplement. [R&T]

 

The role of a computer-based instructional system is to deliver messages to learners. Those messages originated from a human tutor who developed the instruction. Computer systems do not understand these messages which comprise the instruction, student responses, and feedback during the learning process. A computer is merely a conduit for the exchange of messages between student and teacher. A computer system has no idea of the meanings of the messages.

 

References:
Frick, T. (1997). Artificially intelligent tutoring systems: what computers can and can't know.Journal of Educational Computing Research, 16(2), 107-124. Web supplement. [R&T]


Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

 Word-for-Word plagiarism

 Paraphrasing plagiarism

 This is not plagiarism

Hints

Item 7

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

There is a desperate need for theorists and researchers to generate and refine a new breed of learning-focused instructional design theories that help educators and trainers to meet those needs, (i.e., that focus on learning and that foster development of initiative, teamwork, thinking skills, and diversity). The health of instructional-design theory also depends on its ability to involve stakeholders in the design process.

References:
Reigeluth, C. M. (1999). What is instructional design theory and how is it changing? In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional-design theories and models volume II: A new paradigm of instructional theory. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Reigeluth (1999) maintains that we "need theorists and researchers to generate and refine learning-focused instructional design theories...." Such theories will "help educators and trainers to meet those needs (i.e., that focus on learning and that foster development of initiative, teamwork, thinking skills, and diversity)" (p. 27).



References:
Reigeluth, C. M. (1999). What is instructional design theory and how is it changing? In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional-design theories and models volume II: A new paradigm of instructional theory. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.


Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

 Word-for-Word plagiarism

 Paraphrasing plagiarism

 This is not plagiarism

Hints

Item 8

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

Instructional designers typically employ models to guide their day-to-day work. Due to the increased practice of the systematic design of instruction in a growing number of settings, available models become more and more proliferated, focusing on particular types and contexts of learning, particular groups of learners or designers, or particular instructional units (either whole curricula or individual modules or lessons.)

The main goal of any instructional design process is to construct a learning environment in order to provide learners with the conditions that support desired learning processes.

References:
Merriënboer, J. J. van. (1997). Training complex cognitive skills. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.

The primary aim of the process of designing instruction is to create a learning environment which provides students with conditions that help them to learn. Process models proliferate because more and more designers generate models that focus on specific contexts, learners, or even units of instruction.






References:
Merriënboer, J. J. van. (1997). Training complex cognitive skills. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.


Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

 Word-for-Word plagiarism

 Paraphrasing plagiarism

 This is not plagiarism

Hints

Item 9

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

In contrast to the transmittal model illustrated by the classroom lecture-note taking scenario, the constructivist model places students at the center of the process--actively participating in thinking and discussing ideas while making meaning for themselves. And the professor, instead of being the "sage on the stage," functions as a "guide on the side," facilitating learning in less directive ways.

References:
King, A. (1993). From sage on the stage to guide on the side. College Teaching, 41, 30-35.

 

Considering the major changes and shifts in educational needs of today's society, the need for a new paradigm of education has emerged. This new paradigm of education requires a major change in the role of teachers from being the sage on the stage to a guide on the side, facilitating learning in less directive ways.

 

References:
King, A. (1993). From sage on the stage to guide on the side. College Teaching, 41, 30-35.


Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

 Word-for-Word plagiarism

 Paraphrasing plagiarism

 This is not plagiarism

Hints

Item 10

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

The philosophical position known asconstructivism views knowledge as a human construction. The various perspectives within constructivism are based on the premise that knowledge is not part of an objective, external reality that is separate from the individual. Instead, human knowledge, whether the bodies of content in public disciplines (such as mathematics or sociology) or knowledge of the individual learner; is a human construction.

References:
Gredler, M. E. (2001). Learning and instruction: Theory into practice (4th Ed.). Upper Saddle, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

"The philosophical position known asconstructivism views knowledge as a human construction. The various perspectives within constructivism are based on the premise that knowledge is not part of an objective, external reality that is separate from the individual. Instead, human knowledge is a human construction" (p. 29).


Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

 Word-for-Word plagiarism

 Paraphrasing plagiarism

 This is not plagiarism

Answer & Explanation
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