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9.              Democratic political values have varied over time

but generally include all of the following except
a.              citizen participation in policy making.
b.              holding government accountable to citizens.
c.              an independent judiciary.
d.              legislative compromise and administrative discretion.
e.              regular and free elections.
10.           Studies of citizen participation tend to confirm all of the following statements except
a.              there is considerable social diversity among participants.
b.              many participants speak for other government agencies.
c.              organized interests are well represented.
d.              participants tend to be well educated and affluent.
11.           Which of the following is not an impediment to citizen efforts to make bureaucracy more accountable?
a.              Limits on expertise
b.              Limits on access
c.              Limits on time
d.              Limits on dedication
12.           In the area of individual privacy, state governments have shown the greatest interest in enacting
a.              Freedom of Information laws.
b.              fair credit-reporting acts.
c.              privacy acts.
d.              sunshine laws.
13.           Elections are one example of what type of check and balance?
a.         Administrative efficiency
b.         Community control
c.         Freedom of information
d.         Political accountability
e.         None of the above
14.           Which of the following is distinctly a legislative tool for increasing bureaucratic accountability?
a.              Freedom of Information laws
b.              Sunshine laws
c.              Sunset laws
d.              All of the above
15.           Two major approaches to representation are
a.              trustee role and legislator role.
b.              delegate role and administrator role.
c.              democratic and bureaucratic.
d.              delegate role and trustee role.
16.           The concept of government as a guarantor of rights and liberties contradicts which of the following values?
a.              Political neutrality
b.              Pluralism
c.              Individualism
d.              Limited government
17.           Which of the following is a result of the knowledge explosion?
a.              Government employees are hired on the basis of "merit"
b.              Managers make more informed decisions
c.              Specialists have less power than generalists
d.              Decision-making power is concentrated in a few top executives.
18.       Which of the following is not an example of citizen participation in public administration?
a.         Attending open meetings
b.         Writing complaint letters to a representative regarding actions the administration has taken
c.         Serving on Advisory Boards
d.         Organizing protests and movements against the actions of the administration
e.         None of the above
19.       The idea that the public trusts that their interests will be faithfully served by the actions of their representatives is called
a.         the Delegate Role.
b.         the Trustee Role.
c.         none of the above.
20.       Political Scientist Francis Rourke suggests that the influence of experts rests on.
a.         increasing control by experts of bureaucratic discretion.
b.         a pattern of increasing reliance on bureaucratic experts for technical advice.
c.         a monopoly of information in the subject area.
d.         all of the above.
e.         A and C only.
21.       Example(s) of a powerful subsystem is
a.         the "Highway lobby".
b.         the medical industrial complex.
c.         the 9/11 Commission.
d.         A and B only.
e.         all of the above.
22.       Accountability during the decision-making process within a public administration entity may conflict with
a.         equity.
b.         contradictory goals.
c.         labor specialization.
d.         all of the above.
e.         none of the above.
23.       The Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 addressed
a.         comprehensive health care and student loan reform.
b.         stricter guidelines for doctors and teachers.
c.         requirements for schools to cover on-site injuries.
d.         all of the above.
e.         none of the above.
24.       Affirmative action, in terms of public administration allows for
a.         women and minorities to seek employment in public service.
b.         employees of public agencies to be more representative.
c.         employees to keep their jobs for the long term.
d.         A and B only.
e.         all of the above.

TRUE-FALSE QUESTIONS State whether the statement is true or false
1.              Demands for job specialization that result from technological change are likely to reinforce the contemporary trend toward representativeness in job hiring.
2.              Emphasis on "economy and efficiency" in government suggests how values of one social institution—in this case, business—can influence the way government affairs are conducted.
3.              Individualism cannot be reconciled with pluralism.
4.              Changes in the concept of "representativeness" clash most directly with the traditional concept of majority rule.
5.              Bureaucracy, which was designed to carry out laws passed by legislatures, has suffered from the "tilt" of power toward the executive branch.
6.              Conflict between the chief executive direction and the legislative direction of a bureaucracy is likely in American government but unlikely in parliamentary systems.
7.              Government leaders can substantially disturb, but not substantially control, the behavior of public bureaucracies and bureaucrats.
8.              Because of the fragmentation of governmental power, bureaucratic accountability is enforced through multiple channels.
9.              Citizen participation is an established feature of American public administration.
10.           Regarding presidential elections, close elections may be ambiguous in their policy meaning, but landslide victories always carry with them clear policy implications.
11.           The 1966 Freedom of Information Act was passed by Congress in response to citizen concerns about improving access to hard-to-get information.
12.           The Pentagon Papers exposed top-secret military history of U.S. involvement in Vietnam from 1945 to 1967.

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