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Social Psychology
Attitudes and Persuasion


QUESTION 1
Which of the following describes a situation that exceeds an individual's coping ability?
a. general adaptation syndrome
b. exhaustion
c. Yerkes-Dodson law
d. Stress


QUESTION 2
Which common persuasion tactic states that people are more likely to comply with a large request after first agreeing to a smaller request?
a. consensus
b. foot-in-the-door
c. theory of planned behavior
d. Reciprocity


QUESTION 3
In which area was the first positive psychology experiment conducted?
a. criminal psychology
b. abnormal psychology
c. sports psychology
d. pop psychology


QUESTION 4
Which pillar of positive psychology refers to a person's capacity for certain things, such as love or courage?
a. positive institutions
b. positive subjective experiences
c. positive individual traits
d. positive social norms


QUESTION 5
Which of the following relies on the strict rules of supply and demand?
a. loss aversion
b. irrational economic thinking
c. rational economic thinking
d. bounded rationality


QUESTION 6
What is the study of how people combine intuition and logic to process social information?
a. social cognition
b. dual processing
c. cognitive load
d. need for cognition


QUESTION 7
What type of mental structure guides common social behaviors?
a. scripts
b. stereotypes
c. memory structure
d. Schemas


QUESTION 8
Priming increases which of the following?
a. mental accessibility
b. intuition
c. heuristics
d. Experience


QUESTION 9
Which is the best example of using dual processing?
a. Vera is able to cook supper and keep track of her son's homework progress at the same time.
b. Agnes is both an excellent abstract painter and an outstanding mathematician.
c. Marcus is able to drive a car and nod his head to his favorite song on the radio.
d. Carlos loves the soda commercial jingle. But he chooses not to drink it because of concerns about weight and tooth decay.


QUESTION 10
Which is the study of how people think and process information?
a. cognitive load
b. dual processing
c. need for cognition
d. social cognition


QUESTION 11
Which best reflects a statement made by a maximizer?
a. Making decisions about what to wear are easy for me.
b. I find it easy to pick the right gift for my spouse.
c. I am usually content wherever I am.
d. I never settle for second best.


QUESTION 12
Which type mental structure is most associated with unfair generalizations about people?
a. schemas
b. scripts
c. prejudice
d. stereotypes


QUESTION 13
When are people less likely to rely on the anchoring and adjustment heuristic?
a. when they are relying on the availability heuristic
b. when they have expertise in the topic discussed
c. when the topic contains emotional content
d. when they are distracted


QUESTION 14
Seeing multiple stories about the same shark attack led people to believe that shark attacks are common because the stories came easily to mind. This is an example of what concept?
a. availability heuristic
b. anchoring and adjustment heuristic
c. representativeness heuristic
d. Algorithm


QUESTION 15
Which is the most likely effect of using upward counterfactual thinking?
a. feeling completely despondent
b. feeling unsure
c. feeling disappointed
d. feeling irritated


QUESTION 16
Which best describes nonverbal communication that conveys widely shared social impressions?
a. logos
b. seals
c. symbols
d. culturemes


QUESTION 17
Which of the following is a universal expression?
a. confusion
b. malice
c frustration
d. Sadness


QUESTION 18
Which theory focuses on how our behavior can influence the behavior of others?
a. halo effect
b. attributional ambiguity
c. what-is-beautiful-is-good effect
d. self-fulfilling prophecy


QUESTION 19
The "run" on the bank mentioned in the text is an example of how panic may lead to ______.
a. attributional ambiguity
b. halo effect
c. a central trait
d. self-fulfilling prophecy


QUESTION 20
Most people rate themselves as better than average drivers. This is an example of ______.
a. false uniqueness bias
b. fundamental attribution error
c. truly false consensus effect
d. actor-observer bias


QUESTION 21
Twins Sammy and Josiah always act more silly when they are together. Thus, their behavior has ______.
a. consistency
b. consensus
c. covariance
d. distinctiveness


QUESTION 22
Using logic to find a unique factor involved in the decision-making of others is relying on what concept?
a. just world hypothesis
b. external attribution
c. principle of noncommon effects
d. internal locus of control


QUESTION 23
People around the world recognize an upturned mouth as being associated with happiness. What concept does this support?
a. universality hypothesis
b. facial leakage
c. micro-expressions
d. affect blend


QUESTION 24
What are attitudes directed toward?
a. evaluative belief
b. attitude object
c. uni-valenced decisions
d. informational belief


QUESTION 25
______ are always based on controlled, conscious beliefs.
a. Dual attitudes
b. Implicit attitudes
c. Explicit attitudes
d. Evaluative beliefs


QUESTION 26
Behavior shaped by punishment and rewards is known as ______.
a. social learning
b. imitative learning
c. classical conditioning
d. operant conditioning


QUESTION 27
What is the state of psychological discomfort that occurs when we try to maintain conflicting beliefs and behaviors?
a. sufficient justification
b. cognitive dissonance
c. self-justification
d. rationalization trap


QUESTION 28
Knowing that the tooth fairy collects teeth from under pillows is an example of ______.
a. informational belief
b. attitude object
c. uni-valenced decisions
d. evaluative belief


QUESTION 29
Nancy has believed passionately since she was a small child that gingersnaps are the best cookie. What factor best describes her resistance to change?
a. attitude strength
b. self-esteem
c. personality
d. Intelligence


QUESTION 30
What is another name for a mental trap?
a. self-justification
b. cognitive dissonance
c. rationalization trap
d. cherry-picking data


QUESTION 31
Rhea believes that stealing is wrong. But she occasionally shoplifts because her friends do. Which of the following is guiding her behavior?
a. attitude
b. perceived control
c. social norms
d. self-affirmation


QUESTION 32
Why would you use a bogus pipeline?
a. to see how participants react to failure
b. to see how participants react to deceptive confederates
c. to circumvent social desirability
d. to see how participants react to confusing surveys

QUESTION 33
Careful study of an opposing position might leave you even more convinced of your original position. Which of the following explains this?
a. heuristics
b. context variables
c. social power
d. attitude inoculation


QUESTION 34
What is the hardest of McGuire's Six Steps to achieve?
a. Step 6 action
b. Step 5 retention
c. Step 4 acceptance
d. Step 3 comprehension


QUESTION 35
Forewarning is similar to ______, because it encourages the generation of counterarguments.
a. openness to experience
b. attitude inoculation
c. attitude strength
d. speaker credibility


QUESTION 36
Which personality trait makes someone the most receptive to a persuasive argument?
a. conscientiousness
b. neuroticism
c. openness to experience
d. Agreeableness


QUESTION 37
We are motivated to pay more attention to a message from a supervisor because they have ______.
a. credibility
b. social power
c. attractiveness
d. Interest


QUESTION 38
Lydia loves butterflies. In this case, butterflies are ______.
a. Informational beliefs
b. uni-valenced decisions
c. evaluative beliefs
d. attitude objects


QUESTION 39
Arguments that rely on logical reasoning follow what path to persuasion?
a. social power
b. context
c. central
d. Peripheral


QUESTION 40
Which is a criticism of the IAT?
a. It is too simple.
b. It captures automatic beliefs.
c. It does not predict prejudiced behavior.
d. It is only useful at measuring individuals, not group averages.


QUESTION 41
Someone who tends to look for external, situational causes to explain behavior will not be as vulnerable to which of the following?
a. actor-observer bias
b. false uniqueness bias
c. fundamental attribution error
d. false consensus effect


QUESTION 42
What is the concept that much of our lives are shaped by fear of death?
a. external attribution
b. covariation model of attribution
c. terror management theory
d. internal attribution


QUESTION 43
What is the incorrect assumption that other people share our values, perceptions, and beliefs?
a actor-observer bias
b. false uniqueness bias
c. false consensus effect
d. fundamental attribution error


QUESTION 44
Infants around the world smile at the sound of a familiar voice. What concept does this support?
a. micro-expressions
b. facial leakage
c. universality hypothesis
d. affect blend


QUESTION 45
What is a genuine smile called?
a. affect blend
b. facial leakage
c. Duchenne smile
d. duping delight


QUESTION 46
Which of the following is true about self-fulfilling prophecies in the classroom?
a. Self-fulfilling prophecies are especially important to students who are popular.
b. It is unclear whether self-fulfilling prophecies do more harm or good.
c. The effect of a self-fulfilling prophecy increases over time.
d. Self-fulfilling prophecies are the most important influence on student achievement


QUESTION 47
Many people in the Unites States get their news from a single source that reinforces already held beliefs. What is this likely evidence of?
a. confirmation bias
b. negativity bias
c. hindsight bias
d. representativeness heuristic


QUESTION 48
Another term for self-fulfilling prophecy is called ______.
a. halo effect
b. expectancy effect
c. attributional ambiguity
d. a central trait


QUESTION 49
The halo effect of physical attractiveness is sometimes called ______.
a. self-fulfilling prophecy
b. expectancy effect
c. a central trait
d. what-is-beautiful-is-good effect


QUESTION 50
What do memory structures allow humans to do?
a. remember unusual occurrences more than common ones
b. remember information more accurately
c. carefully process detailed information
d. process information almost automatically
 
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