Stage theories of human development Theories of childhood development Throughout most of the 20th century, many people viewed aging as a...
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Think of a movie or TV show about a midlife crisis or have characters that were experiencing a midlife crisis. Using the psychological theories of aging , discuss how the characters responded to their own aging and the aging of those around them. Make sure to incorporate a theory covered in the text (including at least 4 key terms underlined, bolded, or italicized) into your response.  Theories covered in the text will be down below

Keywords: Pick 4 key terms

acculturation

gerotranscendence

organic metaphor

age group identification

humility

personality theory

age identity

information processing

post-parental transition

archetypes

integrity versus despair

quantitative development

coping

intergroup perspective

qualitative development

cross-era transitions

interiority

reminiscence

data

intrinsic

shadow

ego development

introversion

stage of human development

ego resiliency

life cycle

states

emergent self metaphor

life review

tension of opposites

epigenetic principle

life structure

theories

extrinsic

mechanistic metaphor

traits

extroversion

metaphor

transcendent self metaphor

generativity

midlife transitions

transitions

This is my example, come up with a different one

The first show that came to mind was The Sopranos when Uncle Junior (Tony's Uncle) started developing alzheimer's in the middle of the show. He was given a important role in the mafia family business but once he started developing symptoms, Tony revoked his rights from making any rash decisions in the family. Uncle Junior wold try to hide his decision making or what he would at the house but sometimes it just wouldn't go as planned due to how tough it is making decisions and simple task around the house. At first, He's clearly faking early on, but by the end it's clear that he actually has dementia and alzheimers. When Bobby visits him to return the envelope of money in "Kaisha", Junior says that the money was a gift for "Karen and the kids" but Karen is dead and Bobby is already married to Junior's niece Janice. The human development and behavior of Uncle Junior showed the symptons he was developing is a serious matter and how many people deal with it in real life. Uncle Junior started seeing a doctor because he accidently shot Tony. Once that happen, Tony started to take the matter seriously and tried to help Uncle junior but it was already too late. 


In Psychological Theories of Aging, they discuss classic aging pattern and something that Uncle Junior had to deal with due to his decision making and how he would complete task around the house. As they tried to let Uncle Junior have clinical practice, there were times when things didn't go as planned because the problem solving for Junior got very difficult (Psychological theories of aging Iris Wernher, MS, Martin S. Lipsky, MD, MS). Classic aging pattern was one of the developmental stage theories discussed and how it can be treated to prevent a severe disease (Psychological theories of aging Iris Wernher, MS, Martin S. Lipsky, MD, MS). This is my example, come up with a different one




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I. Wernher, M.S. Lipsky / Disease-a-Month 61 (2015) 480-488 481 article is defined broadly as being "conducive to a person's well-being and life satisfaction," as opposed to Rowe and Kahn's Pass original definition of successful aging as the "avoidance of disease and disability, the maintenance of high physical and cognitive function, and sustained engagement in social and productive activities." The relevance of the described theoretical concepts for clinical practice is discussed at the end of each section. The Table summarizes the theories, phenomena, and concepts and their practical implications. Table Psychological theories of aging Theory construct Key assumptions Implications for clinical practice Stage theories of human Human development and learning are Older patients can still learn and adopt development lifelong processes and not restricted healthy behaviors and attitudes (e.g., Erikson's theory to childhood and adolescence Practitioners must assess and understand of psychosocial Aging is not a one-dimensional process a patient's health status in the broader development) of decline; gains are possible even in life context older age Guided autobiographicalnterventions can Past experiences shape a person's be beneficial for patients with current state of well-being (life unresolved life conflicts course perspective) Classic aging pattern Fluid intelligence (e.g., abstract If given more time, older adults can still reasoning, problem solving in novel perform well in complex tasks; they can situations, performance in timed also benefit from memory and learning tasks) naturally decreases with age strategies Crystallized intelligence (acquired Decreases in information processing knowledge and skills) usually speed are, to some extent, normal signs remains relatively stable; gains are of aging: losses in vocabulary or social possible judgment, on the other hand, can be a sign of dementia Cognitive plasticity and Cognitive plasticity is the ability to adapt Patients can compensate for cognitive cognitive reserve to changes throughout one's life losses by applying alternative Cognitive reserve (active or passive) is strategies; training can support this the brain's backup capacity to process compensate for cognitive losses Cognitive reserve can delay the expression of dementia symptoms; practitioners should pay close attention to self-reported changes Positivity effect- Older adults tend to prefer positive over Practitioners can help identify cognitive example of a cognitive negative information when it comes strategies beneficial for emotional self- control strategy to attention and memory regulation Cognitive control processes can Feeling depressed is not a normal part of increase emotional well-being aging and must be clinically addressed Socio-emotional As their time horizon changes, older When assessing a patient's social selectivity-one adults tend to prefer emotionally network, practitioners should not only explanation for the rewarding relationships over pay attention to the number of positivity effect conflictions relationships existing relationships, but also to their quality Selective optimization Older adults can successfully cope with Practitioners can support their patients in with compensation age-related losses by applying both redefining their personal goals and (SOC) cognitive and behavioral strategies, using their remaining resources in a such as selection, optimization, and way that is most rewarding to them compensation

Stage theories of human development Theories of childhood development Throughout most of the 20th century, many people viewed aging as a one-dimensional process of decline." Based on this belief, it is not surprising that the work of most leading scholars centered on changes in human development occurring during childhood and adolescence. One prominent example is Sigmund Freud, who thought of psychological development as a process occurring in stages and who emphasized the importance of the few first years of a child's life for the formation of personality. Similarly, the Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget introduced the theory of cognitive development, which posits that children complete their intellectual development with the formation of abstract reasoning between age 11 years and 16 years. Expanding on Piaget's initial theory of moral development, Lawrence Kohlberg, an American psychologist, presented a model proposing that the maturity of moral judgment increases with a child or young individual's ability to take into account both the view of persons and their social perspectives. While research by Kohlberg included observations throughout adulthood, his focus-like that of his contemporaries-remained on younger individuals and the pedagogical implications of his findings in educational settings. Erikson's stages of psychosocial development One of the first and most influential theories of development as a lifelong process is the theory of psychosocial development by Erik Erikson." Erikson's model proposes the existence of eight stages, each of which includes a developmental challenge, or crisis, that needs resolution before the person can successfully move onto the next stage. Erikson's eighth stage explicitly addresses post-retirement age. This stage is characterized by a person's life review in the face of impending death, in which the person "seeks to balance life successes and disappointments and to reach a compassionate, philosophical comprehension of the whole.""P2 In this process, the individual strives to overcome "despair" and to achieve "integrity," a state of wisdom only reached by fully and unconditionally accepting one's life with all its highs and lows. More recent academic work on Erikson's stage eight of development stresses the existence of different statuses of integrity': Integration (where people are overall optimistic and content with their experiences and achievements) and despair (where people are depressed and regretful about perceived failures and missed chances in life). Hearn et al. proposed two additional intermediate positions-nonexploratory and pseudointegrated-that are consistent with Erikson's own observations. Nonexploratory people are individuals who are generally content, but have mentally withdrawn to a superficial comfort zone characterized by little introspection and a lack of curious involvement in the world. Pseudointegrated people, on the other hand, appear to have reached the state of integration, but their overly emphasized satisfaction with life is a surface construct supported by a vehement denial of any potentially self-damaging aspect of their lives. The relevance of stage theories for clinical practice Although the notion of lifelong learning and development can no longer be considered a novel insight, stage theories of development demonstrate the importance of understanding an older person's well-being from a life course perspective. As explained in more detail by Hasworth and Cannon, the life course approach "points to the importance of context- historical, cultural, and social-for development and aging and provides a more nuanced perspective of how social forces and individual agency interact to shape aging outcomes."P. In other words, our current physical, mental, and social well-being results in large parts from life trajectories, including environmental influences such as the people we interact with and the behaviors we adopt. In clinical practice, recognizing the influence of an older individual's context facilitates the identification of more effective support and treatment plans.

At the same time, stage theories of human development remind us that, even in older age, there is an opportunity for continued development and psychological growth. Emphasizing an individual's lifelong ability to learn and to adapt to new challenges counteracts the widespread assumption that advising an older person to adopt new behavioral patterns is a hopeless cause. In fact, this pessimistic assumption may be a highly prevalent self-stereotype among older adults, fostering negative thoughts, facilitating self-fulfilling prophecies, and undermining therapeutic adherence. Thus, practitioners can improve treatment outcomes by strengthening their older patients' confidence in their ability to make changes conducive to their health and well-being. For example, even individuals with lifelong tobacco use should still be encouraged to quit smoking. From Erikson's model, we can neither infer that aging automatically goes along with the acquisition of a Zen-like state of universal wisdom, nor that it unavoidable evokes perpetual despair and resignation. The developmental stages and their intrinsic crises show that the later years in life, much like the earlier ones, have their specific challenges. These challenges can- depending on our attitudes and introspective skills-lead either to greater or to lesser life satisfaction. The idea of overcoming the conflict between despair and integrity as a person turns to reflect on the trajectories and turning points of a life lived is closely connected to the underlying principles of interventions known as "life review" or "reminiscence therapy." These interventions focus on autobiographicalories and the way in which they shape people's perceptions of the meaning of their lives; the process usually involves actively confronting distressing memories in order to come to terms with the less pleasing aspects of one's life. Life review, reminiscence therapy, and other guided autobiographicalnterventions are used in a wide variety of settings, including palliative care and the treatment of depression, but they can also be used in healthy older adults to increase their emotional well-being, life satisfaction, and biographic memory. Overall, these interventions prove to be fairly effective and can therefore be considered as a therapeutic option if a clinical practitioner believes that a patient could benefit from a constructive confrontation with particular unresolved life events. However, life review as an active process of balancing out positive and negative life experiences is contraindicated in individuals with dementia or with cognitive impairment who can no longer process complex chains of thought. In these individuals, reminiscence with an emphasis on positive memories is more effective." Cognition in later life Age and intelligence: the classic aging pattern Despite controversy about its definition and measurement, intelligence remains one of the most intensely studied phenomena in psychology. While intelligence is not the same as cognition, both concepts are closely related in that cognitive processes, such as attention, working memory, and reasoning, are needed to develop the ability to "intelligently" understand the world. In the 1960s, Raymond Cattell introduced the distinction between fluid and crystallized intelligence. "Fluid intelligence describes a person's cognitive flexibility that is inherent, for example, in the ability to reason abstractly and to solve problems in novel situations; fluid intelligence is equated with "native intelligence" and exists independently of knowledge acquired through experience and learning. Crystallized intelligence, on the other hand, describes acquired knowledge and skills, such as vocabulary and social judgment. Many studies demonstrate that older adults tend to perform more poorly than their younger counterparts when it comes to tasks that require fluid intelligence; however, they perform equally well or better in situations requiring the use of crystallized intelligence (Fig.).125 This phenomenon is referred to as the "classic aging pattern" PE ) and is due to normal age-related decline in our information processing speed. Another noteworthy finding with regard to fluid intelligence is that more recently born cohort groups tend to perform better in cognitive tests

Crystallized Intelligence T Score Processing Robustness Processing Speed Fluid Intelligence "(biology'process-based face!) 30- 25 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Age Fig. Age gradients of fluid intelligence, crystallized intelligence, processing speed, and processing robustness ie., the degree of performance stability (Li et al. " used with permission) The T score is a standardized expression of the study participants' mean composite scores in different psychometric tests for the different age groups. when compared to earlier-born cohorts of the same age. Recent research indicates that this historic trend may not only apply to younger people, but can persist well into older age. 14 Implications for clinical practice One reason why older adults experience losses in their fluid intelligence is because age- related physical changes lead to decreases in information processing speed, attention, memory, and learning capacity. In our fast-paced, achievement-oriented Western societies, the ability to perform quickly often equates with the perception of a person's cognitive capacity, or intelligence. What is often overlooked is that, if the time factor is eliminated, older adults perform equally well as younger people, particularly in tasks related to acquired skills and knowledge. In clinical practice, this means that care providers should be aware that older adults may simply need more time to complete a task, such as completing forms or responding to complex questions. Practitioners who administer cognitive tests like those used to screen for dementia need to compare the test scores to a reference population of similar education and age to avoid misinterpreting the results. Patients who are concerned about cognitive decline often find relief in the reassurance that a certain degree of slowing down is a normal part of aging and not a sign of dementia. Older adults in particular may also benefit from auxiliary strategies, such as the use of mnemonics to acquire new knowledge or the manipulation of their environment to facilitate undisturbed, selective attention to the task at hand. Cognitive plasticity and cognitive reserve Cognitive plasticity is a multi-faceted concept that describes a person's ability to adapt to varying conditions and refers to the "contrast between an individual's current average level of [cognitive] performance under normative conditions and one's latent potential." (p.297) As Willis et al. "point out, cognitive plasticity is closely connected to a life course perspective since it emphasizes human development as a lifelong process of adaptation to changing circum- stances. While our capacity to adapt to changes-including age-related losses-is naturally limited, there is agreement among scientists that this capacity can be enhanced through training and experience. This assumption is supported by a clinical observation known as "cognitive reserve"-a sort of "backup capacity" that enables individuals to function on an adequate cognitive level even in the face of pathological changes in the brain. In the case of passive cognitive reserve, the threshold for expressing clinically significant symptoms is increased (ie., the expression of symptoms is delayed). Active cognitive reserve, on the other hand, refers to the brain's capability of actively compensating for losses through the application of alternative processes and strategies. For example, a person who is highly skilled in processing information efficiently at a younger age will most likely be able to more effectively cope with cognitive losses than a person with the same level of decline who never developed such skills.

Implications for clinical practice Similar to the life course perspective, the concept of cognitive plasticity underlines both the existence and importance of lifelong adaptability and learning. While experiencing natural losses with aging, older individuals are also capable of experiencing gains. A clinician should not discourage an older patient from adopting new cognitive strategies or from drawing on existing skills to maintain an adequate and/or satisfying day-to-day performance. However, evaluating a patient's cognitive status carefully helps direct interventions. For example, in the case of an underlying illness, such as Alzheimer's disease, a patient may not be able to acquire new strategies. In this case, the focus should shift to retaining skills and supporting existing abilities. Dementia also clinically illustrates the principle of cognitive reserve. While a higher level of education cannot prevent Alzheimer's and related diseases, it is considered a protective factor because the onset of clinically relevant symptoms can be delayed. One important implication is that for highly educated individuals, even if a cognitive screening test such as the Folstein MMSE score falls within the normal range, a dementing process cannot be excluded. In those with high educational attainment, close attention needs to be paid to any changes a patient reports regarding their "usual" performance. If in doubt, referral to a neurologist or psychiatrist for more detailed testing should be considered. Another example of the impact of (passive) cognitive reserve in dementia is that oftentimes, family caregivers report that the cognitive condition of their loved ones drastically worsened "overnight," after going on a trip, staying at the hospital, or being otherwise taken out of their daily routine. According to the cognitive reserve hypothesis, the sudden decline can be a sign that a person's threshold capacity for cognitive compensation has been exceeded. It may be beneficial for the caregiver to understand that abrupt declines in the patient's clinical status can occur as part of the illness and that a change in routine, while causing the underlying deterioration, can rapidly deplete a person's cognitive resources and unmask a significant decline in functional ability. On the other hand, sudden mental disorientation and changes in mood and attention-especially in the hospital setting-can be signs of delirium, which is often confused with dementia. In contrast to dementia, delirium is a state of acute, temporary confusion with fluctuating symptoms. It is usually reversible and can be caused by a variety of conditions, including infections, drug interactions, and de- hydration. Since the underlying causes may require immediate intervention, differential diagnosis is crucial, yet particularly difficult when the delirium is superimposed on preexisting dementia. Emotional self-regulation in later life The positivity effect Similar to personality traits, emotional functioning and the importance of social integration change very little as we age. We may perceive emotions differently than in the earlier stages of our lives, but they continue to have an impact on both mental and physical well-being: "In late life, as at earlier times, the experience of negative emotions affects physiological functioning and ultimately physical health." P." For the longest time, the widespread belief existed-and often still exists-that the later years are characterized as an accumulation of physical, cognitive, and emotional loss and decline and that consequently people reaching this phase will naturally enter a state of continuous sadness, resignation, and despair. Recent research reveals that this gloomy image of aging does not appear to be true." In fact, there seems to be a relationship between older age and the tendency to prefer positive over negative information with regard to attention and memory processes. This observation, described in detail by Mather and Carstensen, "is referred to as "positivity effect." In a recent meta-analysis of 100 studies with over 7000 participants, Reed et al. "found that the positivity effect in older adults could reliably be observed.

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