When essentialists define something they typically Question 1 options: use the metric system rather than the english system of measurement. try to...
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When essentialists define something they typicallyQuestion 1 options:

use the metric system rather than the english system of measurement. 


try to understand the basic essence, the TRUTH of the thing.


declare that we can never know the truth and that all knowledge is unique to the individual.


use specific observable behaviors to define what they mean.

Question 2 (1 point)

 








When operationalists define something they typically

Question 2 options:


use specific observable behaviors to define what they mean.


try to understand the basic essence, the TRUTH of the thing.


declare that we can never know the truth and that all knowledge is unique to the individual.


use the metric system rather than the english system of measurement. 

Question 3 (1 point)

 








When we say that we are measuring something reliably, we are telling the listener that

Question 3 options:


we are measuring in a way that gets the same, or nearly the same, answer every time.


we are measuring the property or characteristic that we intended to measure.


the average score on the instrument will be about 80%.


we have understood the essense of the thing we are measuring.

Question 4 (1 point)

 








When we say that we are measuring something and have construct validity we are telling the listener that

Question 4 options:


we are measuring in a way that gets the same, or nearly the same, answer every time.


we are measuring the property or characteristic that we intended to measure.


the average score on the instrument will be about 80%.


we have understood the essense of the thing we are measuring.

Question 5 (1 point)

 








You are reading an old article on psychology from the early 1950's. As you read you realize that the author is describing personality in a manner that is very different from the way it was described in your PSYC 101 textbook (published in 2008). How do you explain this difference?

Question 5 options:


Personality hasn't changed, but our understanding of it has improved considerably since the 1950's.


Personality has changed since the 1950's so a new explanation is needed.


Personality has not changed, it is likely that the PSYC 101 book is just over-simplifying.


Personality has changed and it is likely the text is simplifying the material for freshman readers.

Question 6 (1 point)

 








In psychology we have a more difficult time measuring things than say biology or physics. Why is that?

Question 6 options:


Humans are special and not subject to the normal physical limitations required to perform measurement.


It is hard to know precisely what we mean by terms such as "depression" or "intelligence" so it is difficult to measure them until we can clearly identify their basic essence.


Because psychological characteristics, such as personality, are largely unmeasurable in any practical sense.


Psychology often measures characteristics that are not directly observable and so must be measured indirectly.

Question 7 (1 point)

 








A latent variable is

Question 7 options:


a variable that cannot be measured directly and so it has to be inferred from observable behaviors.


the true essence of the characteristic we want to measure.


a variable that is added late in the experimental investigation.


a variable that cannot be measured because it doesn't actually exist, for example "psi power."

Question 8 (1 point)

 








When it comes to the reliability and validity of a measure:

Question 8 options:


When something is valid, it is often never reliable. 


To be a good measure, it must be reliable, AND valid. 


validity is when you can get the same answer consistently.


It is good enough to have something be reliable, it doesn't necessarily have to be valid if it is consistent.

Question 9 (1 point)

 








Which is NOT an example of a latent variable?

Question 9 options:


intelligence


weight


the personality scale of openness to experience


depression

Question 10 (1 point)

 








Why are Scientists NOT Essentialists?

Question 10 options:


Scientists like to investigate the meaning of words via empiricism


Essentialists investigate questions that are falsifiable


Scientists often belong in the domain of religion, morality, and philosophy


Scientists really are Essentialists

Question 11 (1 point)

 








Is the statement, "Do I get the same answer every time?" referring to validity (construct)?

Question 11 options:

True

False

Question 12 (1 point)

 








Just because a measure has high reliability does not mean the measure has high validity.

Question 12 options:

True

False

Question 13 (1 point)

 








Parents of children with emotional and behavior problems tend to be consistent.

Question 13 options:

True

False

Question 14 (1 point)

 








According to Dr. Danzi, which of the following statements is false?

Question 14 options:


The "fit" between the child and parenting style is not important.


There is no single "right way."


Parenting choices are deeply personal.


Psychologists have spent decades studying parenting styles and techniques.

Question 15 (1 point)

 








Which of the following is not a goal of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy?

Question 15 options:


Increase warmth and positive interactions.


Stop escalation of parent negative behavior.


Punish children for inappropriate behaviors.


Stop reinforcement of child for noncompliance.

Question 16 (5 points)

 








Select all of the items that are a "do" in Parent-Child Interaction Therapy?

Question 16 options:


A) 

Praise


B) 

Commands


C) 

Reflect


D) 

Questions


E) 

Describe


F) 

Negative Talk


G) 

Imitate


H) 

Enjoyment and Enthusiasm

Question 17 (1 point)

 








In parenting, what is the result of inconsistency in parental behavior?

Question 17 options:


Nothing really.


It reinforces bad behavior


It doesn't impact children unless they already have a behavioral problem.


Allows parents to deal with situations on a case-by-case basis

Question 18 (1 point)

 








In Parent-Child Interaction Therapy, what are the PRIDE skills?

Question 18 options:


Praise, Reflect, Initiate, Describe, Engagement


Praise, Reflect, Imitate, Describe, Enjoyment


Positive, Relational, Inclusive, Decisive, Enjoyment


Praise, Reflect, Initiate, Discuss, Engage

Question 19 (1 point)

 








A parent is playing with a 5-year-old child, when the child starts knocking all of his toys off the kitchen table. Using the principles of Child-Directed Interaction, what should the parent do?

Question 19 options:


Yell at the child


Have a calm discussion with the child about why he should not knock his toys off the table


Ignore the toy knocking, and praise the child for using a quiet voice 


Send the child directly to time out

Question 20 (1 point)

 








According to Dr. Danzi, psychological principles can be very helpful in everyday life, including parenting.

Question 20 options:

True

False

Question 21 (1 point)

 








In class your instructor argued that when it comes to stories

Question 21 options:


a) 

humans reject stories preferring to utilize carefully collected statistical data in order to understand how the world works.


b) 

our brains are very wary of stories that cannot be substantiated first hand. If we didn't witness something first hand we are likely to disbelieve anything whe hear about an event.


c) 

we often take a story as a meaningful starting point from which to develop a fuller understanding of the underlying mechanisms of what causal structures are at work.


d) 

our brains take whatever information we have, create a story about causality, and, if the story feels right, accept the story as a factual explanation.

Question 22 (1 point)

 








A case study or testimonial is useful in science

Question 22 options:


always, case studies or testimonials are a major source of evidence for scientific theories.


never, thiere is nevery any place for case studies or testimonials in science.


on occasion, they provide the key information to prove a theory.


on occasion, when they provide the inspiration for systematically exploring a topic.

Question 23 (1 point)

 








Vividness is an impediment to good decision making because

Question 23 options:


vividness is an asset to good decision making.


decision making is a cognitive process not a visual process.


memorable cases have a larger on decision making than they should.


it emphasizes using statistical tools such as charts and graphs.

Question 24 (1 point)

 








The apparent effectiveness of non-effective theraputic interventions is known as

Question 24 options:


the Barnum effect.


the placebo effect.


the vividness effect.


a case study.

Question 25 (1 point)

 








An example of the Barnum effect is the tendency of people to

Question 25 options:


believe in the effectiveness of non-effective therapies


incorporate meaningful new information into their memories.


say that a generalized personality summary applies to them.


follow circuses from town to town.

Question 26 (1 point)

 








Which type of evidence would a psychologist value the most?

Question 26 options:


The opinion of a self-proclaimed expert.


A testimonial from a highly regarded scientist.


A case study.


A true experiment with a control group and an experimental group.

Question 27 (1 point)

 








Stanovich describes one problem with pseudoscience as the associated opportunity cost. Which of the following is among the examples that Stanovich used to describe the opportunity cost associated with pseudoscientific beliefs?

Question 27 options:


People are subjected to needless cavities and dental treatments due to a lack of fluoridation in the water they drink.


ESP is used for selecting among job candidates.


Being more afraid of Halloween candy than car accidents or drowning in a swimming pool.


Birth control via the toaster method.

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