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Consider the different theoretical explanations for crime that we have covered in the photos (within the classical perspective and the biological perspective).

From these theories, select one that you agree with and one that you disagree with (e.g., agree with rational choice, disagree with environmental pollution). explain your choices, with examples where relevant.


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inj I X AC A A AS A XX XX X F B W T G WS X W + - > C A brightspace.algonquincollege.com/d21/le/content/350363/viewContent/5316229/View Q AM Paused Update : Neoclassical Criminology: Punishment and Deterrence The neoclassical approach also examines punishment; before committing a crime, an individual will consider the chances of getting caught, the severity of the expected penalty and the pleasure to be gained by committing the act. If this person perceives the costs to be too high, the act to be too risky, or the payoff to be too small, he/she will choose to not commit the offence. Penalties are not necessarily limited to traditional punishments (e.g., jail time and fines), but can also include social punishments (e.g., social isolation, family strain, job loss). Committing a criminal act brings a certain amount of pleasure to an offender. To counteract this, punishments must have enough pain to outweigh the pleasure. This begs the question: is the severity of the punishment negatively correlated to the crime rate? The research results are mixed; some research suggests that an increase in the severity of the punishment may lead to a reduction in crime, but research on capital punishment indicates that there is no correlation. The certainty of punishment does seem to have an impact on deterring crime. People respond to their fear of being punished. For example, if someone is sure that he/she will be caught and punished, that person is less likely to commit the crime. While deterrence is a factor in preventing individuals from committing criminal acts, it most likely is not the sole or deciding factor. Most people will not commit criminal acts because their morals tell them that it is wrong, and because they have been socialized to follow the rules and norms of society. Much of our justice system is based on the notion of deterrence. In fact, the principles of sentencing as set out in section 718 of the Criminal Code of Canada lists "deterrence... to reduce criminal conduct" as one of the guiding principles. i There are a variety of programs (often aimed at young offenders) that attempt to deter youth from participating in criminal activity. Can you think of any of the programs in your area that seem to have been influenced by or based on a deterrence model? Lf 11:32 PM 21/06/2021

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in I X AC AX A AS A A A * F B W T G WS + X W - > C A brightspace.algonquincollege.com/d21/le/content/350363/viewContent/5316228/View Q Paused Update : Neoclassical Criminology: Rational Choice By the end of the nineteenth century, another significant criminological theory emerged. This theory was known as positivism (to be discussed as part of the biological theories in Module 6). However, the proponents of classical theory rejected the positivist approach, and instead developed a contemporary version of classical theory known as neoclassical theory. The neoclassical theory focuses on rational choice and punishment. The neoclassical theory evolved from the classical theory and focuses on rational choice and the importance of character and the dynamics of character development. Specifically, the opportunity to commit crime, the social environment and situational variables will impact an individual's choices. To explain this further, people choose to engage in crime because it can be rewarding, easy, pleasureful and entertaining. Yet, since people are rational beings, their behaviour can be controlled or modified by a fear of punishment. Rational choice theory indicates that offenders weigh the potential benefits and consequences associated with committing an offence, and then make a rational choice on the basis of this evaluation. This theory puts the blame for crime on the individual, and not on society as a whole: criminals need to take responsibility and to make better choices. Rational choice can be further be broken down into two steams: routine activities/lifestyle and situational choice. Each of these will be summarized below. Routine Activities Theory / Lifestyle Situational Choice Theory Criminal behavior is a function of choices and Activities and lifestyles can contribute to the decisions made within a context of situational volume and type of crime in society. Crime is constraints and opportunities. likely to occur when a motivated offender and suitable victim come together in the absence of a capable guardian. [Note: you will recall that this theory was discussed in Module 41 HUH O OU Lf S 11:31 PM 21/06/2021

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in W + X - > C A brightspace.algonquincollege.com/d21/le/content/350363/viewContent/5316227/View Q Paused Update : Punishment Criminal punishment is a deterrent to unlawful behavior. For instance, if the bank robber discovers that he/she will likely go to jail that could deter him/her from robbing the bank. Human Rights All individuals have rights and society need to respect those rights. For example, the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms ensures that everyone has legal rights (e.g., right to be secure against unreasonable search and seizure, right not to be arbitrarily detained or imprisoned) Society is made possible by individuals cooperating together and the government must respect these rights. Due Process Everyone should be presumed innocent until proven otherwise and should not be subject to punishment before guilt is lawfully established. Pause and Reflect HHHH Lf S 11:31 PM 21/06/2021

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in A XX XX X F BW GWO W + X - > C A brightspace.algonquincollege.com/d21/le/content/350363/viewContent/5316227/View Q Paused Update : Classical Criminology Theory: Key Components The classical theory believes that people freely choose their behaviour and are motivated by the avoidance of pain and the pursuit of pleasure. Individuals evaluate their choice of actions in accordance with each option's ability to produce personal gain, pleasure and happiness. The five (5) key components of classical criminology theory are: rationality, hedonism, punishment, human rights and due process. Each of these will be summarized below. Click on each to reveal the definition. Rationality Human beings have free will and they choose to commit crime. They intentionally make the choice to break the law. For example, someone may decide to rob a bank if he/she needs money, but has none. He/she would see bank robbery as an option to resolve financial difficulties. Hedonism People see pleasure and try to avoid pain. They will seek the rewards and try to avoid the punishment. To continue the above example, when contemplating a bank robbery, the robber may think of all of the things he/she will do with the money (reward) while planning to wear a disguise to avoid getting caught (avoiding the punishment). HUH O OU Lf S 11:30 PM 21/06/2021

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