View the step-by-step solution to:

15) According to Patricia M. Lengermann and Jill Niebrugge-Brantley, the basis for any feminist sociological theory lies in which of the following?

15) According to Patricia M. Lengermann and Jill Niebrugge-Brantley, the basis for any feminist sociological theory lies in which of the following?: classical biological theory; Charles Darwin's evolutionary theoretical models; contemporary feminist theory; theories of creation; or cultural theory.


16) Although the term gender is often used euphemistically in sociology for "women," the sociology of gender is, more precisely which of the following?: the study of socially constructed male and female roles, relations, and identities; studies aimed at presenting a woman-centered patterning of human experience; the study of biological and genetic differences between men and women; or the study of family and marital relationships.


17) Most feminist theorists are uncomfortable with "essentialism" because of which of the following?: essentialism is too radical and change-oriented; they take as the purpose of their work the critical imperative "not to theorize the world but to change it," and essentialism denies the possibility, of change; essentialism is responsible for male dominance; or essentialism promotes intellectual dishonesty.


18) The following writers and thinkers were proponents of cultural feminism except?: Margaret Fuller; Charlotte Perkins Gilman; Jane Addams; or Katherine Dalton.


19) The following are some explanations of origins of gender difference offered by feminists except which one?: biology; institutional structures and socialization experiences; interactive practices; social-psychological processes; or evolutionary practices


20) A major determinant of difference, according to the institutional structures and socialization experiences explanation of gender difference is which of the following?: intellectual abilities derived from biology; lack of emotional and psychological nurturing; the sexual division of labor that links women to the functions of wife, mother, and household worker, to the private sphere of the home and family, and thus to a lifelong series of events and experiences very different from those of men; or instinctual dispositions derived from natural evolution.


21) Which of the following are the two broad types of social-psychological theories of gender difference? Is it: phenomenological and ethnomethodological; neostructural and institutional;

phenomenological and poststructuralist; or conflict and neoMarxist?


22) Theorists of gender difference typically demand which of the following?: that women's distinctive ways of being be recognized not as departures from the normal but as viable alternatives to male modes; that society should be changed into one that is female-dominated;

or that public knowledge, academic scholarship, and the very patterning of social life adjust to take serious account of female ways of being.


23) Which of the following is a major difference between theories of gender difference and theories of gender inequality? Is it: theories of gender inequality affirm that gender differences can be changed while theories of difference view them as more durable, more penetrative of personality, and less easily changed; theories of gender difference focus exclusively on difference among women while those of gender inequality focus on differences between men and women;

theories of gender difference focus primarily on power difference while those of gender inequality focus on differences among women; or theories of gender inequality focus on differences among women while theories of gender difference focus exclusively on differences in educational levels?


24) Within contemporary feminist theory, liberal feminism is a minority position. Yet at the same time, liberal feminism is the most widely diffused approach within the contemporary women's movement in America in the following areas except?: popular writing on careers for women;

equal parenting; the need for gender-free schooling for young children;. it guides many of the policies initiated by the Women's movement; it is embodied in the programmatic statement of the most powerful Latin American Workers' Movement.


25) Liberal feminists believe that because of sexism, females are, from childhood on, limited and

maimed, so that they can move into their adult roles and in those roles "dwindle" from full humanness into the mindless, dependent, subconsciously depressed beings created by the constraints and requirements of their genderspecified roles. This description of women dwindling from full humanness is taken from "The Future of Marriage (1982) by which of the following?

Is it: Jessie Bernard; Dorothy E. Smith; Patricia Hill Collins; Harriet Martineau; or Anna Julia Cooper?


26) In the last decade, which of the following two key themes in the liberal feminist

paradigm have been explored with probing effectiveness by feminist academics?: sharing household income and sexual prejudice; pay equity in wage work and gender inequities in housework; equal education opportunity and sexual freedom; or equality of opportunity in housing and equality in income.


27) Marxian feminism brings together Marxian class analysis and feminist social protest. Yet this amalgam produces not an intensified theory of oppression but rather which of the following?:

a more muted statement of inequality, that is, of gender inequality; a more radical approach to social class oppression; a more capitalist analysis of culture and the class system; or a more socialist approach to social inequality and the class system.


28) The foundation of Marxian feminism was laid by Marx and Engels. Their major concern was social class oppression, but they frequent1y turned their attention to gender oppression. Their most famous exploration of this issue is presented in The Origins of the Family, Private Property and the State in 1883. The major arguments of this book are the following except?:

Woman's subordination results not from her biology, which is presumably immutable, but from social arrangements that have a clear and traceable history; The relational basis for women's subordination lies in the family, a system of dominant and subordinate roles; Society legitimizes this family system by claiming that such a structure is the fundamental institution in all societies;

The factors that destroyed this type of social system, producing what Engels calls "the world historic defeat of the female sex" are economic, specifically the replacement of hunting and gathering by herding, horticulture, and farming economies; or the exploitation of labor has developed into complex structures of domination, most particularly class relations and the intellectual order created to safeguard all these systems of domination, with the family enforcing the subordination of men.


29) From the contemporary Marxian feminist theoretical vantage point, the quality of each individual's life experiences is a reflection first of his or her what? Is it: class position and only second of his or her gender; gender and only second of his or her class position; psychological state and second of his or her class position; or sexual orientation and second of his or her psychological state?


30) According to contemporary Marxian feminists, upper-class, wealthy women are antagonistic to blue-collar or poor welfare women but share many experiences and interests with upper-class, wealthy men in both their class-determined experiences and their interests. Given this starting point, Marxian feminists acknowledge that within any class, women are less advantaged than men in their access to the following except which one? Is it: material goods; power; status;

possibilities for self-actualization; psychological systems responsible for prejudice and discrimination? 


31) According to contemporary Marxian feminists, gender inequality in the wage-earning classes is perpetuated by capitalists because it is functional for capitalism in the following ways except which one? Is it: women as wage earners are, because of their lower social status, more poorly paid and, because of their sense of wage-sector marginality, difficult to unionize; women in the wage-earning classes serve as an unresisting source of profit for the ruling classes; they are an important part of the reserve labor force that, as a pool of alternative workers, acts as a threat to and a brake on unionized male wage demands; as housewives, wives, and mothers, they unwittingly further support the process; bourgeois profit making as consumers of goods and of services for the household; or they, as housewives, wives, and mothers are paid care givers who add to the real costs of reproducing and maintaining the work force


32) According to contemporary Marxian feminists, the fact that within any class women are less advantaged than men, rather than vice versa, seems to have no immediate structural cause. Rather, as in liberal feminism, this fact results from which of the following?: a historic carryover from the collapse of primitive communism that Engels described; socialist developmental models and structures; communist developmental models and structures; or women's psychological and emotional inferiority.


33) The solution for gender inequality, according to contemporary Marxian feminists, is not a direct mobilization of women against men because of which of the following?: all men have relationships with women; women are more intelligent than men and provide the intellectual basis for revolution; it is counterrevolutionary since it divides the potentially revolutionary working class; or society is not yet matriarchal.


34) According to theories of gender oppression, women's situation is centrally that of the following except which one?: being used by men; controlled by men; subjugated by men;

oppressed by men; or provided for by men


35) According to Patricia M. Lengermann and Jill Niebrugge-Brantley, a majority of contemporary feminist theorists in some measure subscribe to which of the following variety of feminist theory? Is it: inequality theory; gender difference theory; third-wave theory; or oppression theory?


36) Which of the following is a variant of oppression theory that maps and emphasizes the

emotional dynamics of personality, emotions often deeply buried in the subconscious or unconscious areas of the psyche? Is it: psychoanalytic feminism; liberal feminism; radical feminism; or socialist feminism?


37) In the search for the energic underpinnings of patriarchy, psychoanalytical feminists have identified two possible explanations for male domination of women. Which of the following are these two explanations? Is it: the fear of death and the socio-emotional environment in which the personality of the young child takes form; the fear of women and the potential for the establishment matriarchy; women's reproductive superiority and their emotional soundness;

or women's ability to learn and their physical difference?


38) Radical feminists see in every institution and in society's most basic structures-heterosexuality, class, caste, race, ethnicity, age, and gender-systems of oppression in which some people dominate others. Of all these systems of domination and subordination, the most fundamental structure of oppression is which of the following?: gender, the system of patriarchy;

socialism; behaviorism; individualism; or governmental structures


39) Radical feminists argue that men create and maintain patriarchy not only because they have the resources to do so but because they have which of the following?: real interests in making women serve as compliant tools; real interests in producing all the food consumed within each society; the support of all women for the establishment of matriarchy; or the sole responsibility of raising children.


40) The following, according to radical feminists, are the strategies women must use to defeat patriarchy except which one?: women must stop the reproduction of male children; women must begin with a basic reworking of women's consciousness so that each woman recognizes her own value and strength; or women must reject patriarchal pressures to see themselves as weak, dependent, and second-class women must work in unity with other women, regardless of differences among them, to establish a broad-based sisterhood of trust, support, appreciation, and mutual defense.


41) Radical feminists' central argument is that patriarchy ultimately rests on which of the following?: the elimination of Feudalism; the practice of violence against women; the rise of Fascism in Europe; or modern educational systems around the world.


42) In a more specific way, socialist feminists seek to bring together what they perceive as the two broadest and most valuable feminist traditions. Which of the following are those two traditions?: Marxian and radical feminist thought; socialist and postmodernist feminist thought;

pyschoanalytic and social feminist thought; or communist and socialist feminist thought.


43) What is the term most frequently used by socialist feminist theorists, who focus exclusively on women's oppression and on understanding it in a way that brings together knowledge from Marxism of class oppression and knowledge from radical feminism of gender oppression, for the system they describe? Is it: capitalist patriarchy; socialist matriarchy; capitalist matriarchy;

capitalist ideology; or socialist ideology


44) Both the focus of socialist feminists on capitalist patriarchy and domination are linked to a

commitment, either explicit or implicit, to historical materialism as an analytical strategy (Jaggar, 1983). Historical materialism., a basic principle in Marxian social theory, refers to the following except which one?: the position that the material conditions of human life, inclusive of the

activities and relationships that produce those conditions, are the key factors that pattern human experience, personality, ideas, and social arrangements; the view that these material conditions of human life change over time because of dynamics imminent within them; the view that history is a record of the changes in the material conditions of a group's life and of the correlative changes in experiences, personality, ideas, and social arrangements; or the view that the material conditions of human life are subconscious and a product of various psychological and instinctive processes.


45) Socialist feminists' redefinition of the concept of material conditions transforms the Marxian

assumption that human beings are producers of goods into a theme of human beings as which of the following?: creators and sustainers of all human life; initiators of all psychological processes;

prisoners of biological determinism; prisoners of economic circumstances; or prisoners of instinctual drives.


46) The following are characteristics of Third-wave feminist theory except which one?:

consists of critical theories constructed in the 1960s and 1970s; these critical theories tend to use a generalized, monolithic concept of "woman" as a generic category in stratification; it focuses instead on the factual and theoretical implications of differences among women; it focuses on the differences resulting from an unequal distribution of socially produced goods and services; or it focuses exclusively on the intellectual and biological differences among women 


47) The focus of Third-wave feminist theorists on differences among women has produced at least three areas of concretized intellectual work in third-wave feminist theory. Which of the following is not one of these three areas?: a depiction of the diversity of women's experiences;

a critique of many of the most basic categories common to both modern feminist and social analyses; an attempt to identify the sources of intellectual differences that exist between men and women; or an attempt to map the world in terms of how the vectors of subordination and privilege both interact structurally and intersect dynamically in people's lives to create oppression and inequality.


48) According to Third-wave feminists who probe the intricacies of the system of domination by exploring the position of women who are most subordinated, that is, least privileged, one particularly revealing source of knowledge of the social relations of domination has proved to be that of which of the following?: South African men of color; North Atlantic women of color;

South American women of color; or South Asian women.


49) According to Patricia Hill Collins (1990), women of color have the experience of being "the stranger within" the circles of domination and they find themselves closely linked to which of the following?: those who oppress them as women, as people of color, and as poor people;

the power elite members of both the Socialist and the Communist Parties; the power elite members of both the Democratic and Republican Parties; or those who control the reproductive system.


50) The studies that attempt to critique existing concepts in feminist theory are partly in debt to which of the following?: psychological theory; postmodernism; the Vietnam War; or Robert Merton's theory of deviance.


51) The critique within Third-wave feminist theory resulted in which of the following?:

has produced questions about what we mean by categories such as "woman," "gender," and "race"; has proved that women are intellectually superior to men; or has redefined "whiteness" as a social construct rather than an absolute from which other "races" depart.


52) According to Third-wave feminist theorists within the area of vectors of oppression and privilege, the calculus of pain is determined by which of the following?: the intersection of knowledge, intelligence, skills and emotional dispositions; the interplay of cultural lag, cultural shock, and cultural relativism; the intersection in one's individual life of global location, class, race, ethnicity, age, affectional preference, and other dimensions of stratification; or the interaction between elite men and women.


53) Feminist studies, devoted to describing and explaining the intersection of the vectors of oppression and privilege as a macro phenomenon and as an individual lived experience, show that resistance to both oppression and pathology is located in which of the following?:

the unquenchable need of human beings for full, individuated self-actualization; existing communist societies; or one's particular community of oppressed people whose culture, nurturance, and survival strategies are essential to the well-being of its individual members.


54) According to Patricia M. Lengermann and Jill Niebrugge-Brantley, there are four distinctive features of a feminist sociology. Which of the following is not one of these four distinctive features? Is it: a distinctive sociology of knowledge; a distinctive sociology of identity; a distinctive model of the organization of society at the macro-social level;

an exploration of the relational situation of women that alters the traditional sociological understanding of micro interaction; or a revision of sociology's model of subjectivity?


55) A feminist sociology of knowledge sees everything that people label"knowledge of the world" as having four characteristics. Which of the following is not one of these characteristics?:

it is always discovered from the vantage point of an embodied actor situated in a social structure;

it provides information and ideas about how to establish communist regimes in every society;

it is, thus, always partial and interested, never total and objective; it varies from person to person because of differences in embodiment and social situation; or it is always affected by power relations-whether it is discovered from the vantage point of the dominant or that of the subordinate. 


56) Which of the following, according to Patricia M. Lengermann and Jill Niebrugge-Brantley, is the unpardonable error from the standpoint of feminist epistemology?: to perform, speak, or write in the stance of "the god eye", that is, to act as though you were a disembodied, distant, omniscient observer, outside and above but all-knowing about your research subject;

to exclude women from any analysis of situations in the social world; to classify data on the basis of variables identified by the researcher; or to pretend that the social world has dependent and independent variables.


57) In the area of the sociology of knowledge, there is feminist standpoint epistemology which argues that a social observer can arrive at a truth about a situation by which of the following?:

examining data and objectively reporting results as demonstrated by the data; avoiding the undue influence of personal and environmental factors on the observer's interpretations of results;

weaving together the "situated accounts" of the variously located actors, including the account of the social observer herself in the situation; or focusing on the impact of the researcher's presence on the subjects' responses to research questions.


58) In the area of macro social order, feminist sociology begins by expanding the Marxian concept of economic production into a much more general concept of social production, that is, the production of al1 human social life. Along with the production of commodities for the market, social production for feminists also includes arrangements like the following except which one?: organization of housework, which produces the essential commodities and services of the household; psychology and sexuality, which pattern and satisfy human desire;

intimacy, which pattern and satisfy human emotional needs for acceptance, approval, love, and self-esteem; state and religion, which create the rules and laws of a community; or politics, mass media, and academic discourse, which establish institutionalized, public definitions of the situation 

   

59) Within the area of macro social order, the feminist model of stratification in social production offers a direct critique of the structural- functionalist vision of a society composed of a system of separate institutions and distinct though interrelated roles. Feminist theory claims that this image is not generalizable but that it depicts the experiences and vantage points of which of the following?: a particular situated group-white, male, upper-class, and adult; all minority group members in society; women in subordinate positions; or recent migrant workers.


60) Feminism emphasizes the centrality of ideological domination to the structure of social domination. What distinguishes this view from most Marxian views is that for feminists, ideological control is which of the following?: associated exclusively with sexuality and sexual control; not considered to be crucial in the process of domination; the basic process in domination, and the hierarchical control of discourse and knowledge is the key element in societal domination; or excluded from societal domination


61) According to feminist discussion of macro-social order and domination, which of the following concepts refers to an intricate web of beliefs about reality and social life that is institutionalized as public knowledge and disseminated throughout society so effectively that it becomes taken-for-granted knowledge for all social groups? Is it: gender politics; marginalization; domination; ideology; or epistemology?


62) Feminist sociology differs in five important ways from social definitionism and social behaviorism, both of which focus on the micro-interactional order. A review of these

five differences reveals important aspects of the feminist model of the micro order. The following are among these five ways except which one?: Responsive Action versus Purposeful Action; Intermittent Interaction versus Continuous Interaction; The Assumption of Inequality versus the Assumption of Equality; Stratified Meanings versus Common Meanings; or

Conversational constraint versus Choice in Meaning-deconstructtion Relocations


63) Microsociology's typical picture of social life shows purposive actors who are almost continuously in face-to-face interactions in which they orient to each other and in which they assume that all the other actors in the situation are fundamentally like them. Feminist theory

describes a world in which the following apply to women except which one?: women experience highly variable interactions that seldom assume all the interactive qualities of microsociological model; women are located in households work in isolation from face-to-face interactions;

women orient to others only subjectively and responsively rather than purposively;

women, in low-status office, factory, or service jobs, find themselves working at structurally patterned routines in proximity to, but not in interaction with, each other; or women, in many of their most significant interactive situations, find themselves relating to other beings fundamentally like themselves.


64) Feminist theory raises the following questions: Whose experiences of interaction provide sociology with its model of prototypical interaction? What, from the standpoint of women, constitutes prototypical interaction? Which of the following is feminists answer to these questions?: Is it: the experience of dominant men is mirrored in sociology's basic model of interaction b. the experience of women in low-status office, factory or service jobs is mirrored in sociology's basic model of interaction; the experience of women and their children is mirrored in sociology's basic model of interaction; or the experience of subordinate men is mirrored in sociology's basic model of interaction.


65) Conventional microsociology either brackets the issue of meaning (the social behaviorists) or assumes actors, seeing each other in activity and interaction, form shared understandings or collaborative meaning construction through communication and ultimately a common vantage point on their experiences (the social definitionists). Feminists argue that this assumption must be drastically qualified by which of the following?: the fact that men and women have already achieved equality in status, social class, and power; the fact that women now control all the emotional aspects of relationships; the fact that society is now fast becoming matriarchal; or

the fact that micro interactions are embedded in and permeated by the macro structure.


66) In concluding the discussion of a feminist sociology of the micro order, Patricia M. Lengermann and Jill Niebrugge-Brantley point out the following except which one?:

that the conventional models are not wholly inaccurate but that they are only partial models;

that when structural unequals interact, there are many other qualities to their association than those suggested by the conventional models; that we need another model that better captures the realities of the subordinate's experience; or that there is no problem with the conventional models as long as it is recognized that women are beginning to create a matriarchal system


67) One of the most striking features of feminist sociology, according to Patricia M. Lengermann and Jill Niebrugge-Brantley, is its what? Is it: insistence on a third level of social activity-the subjective; radical approach to all social and psychological problems; emphasis on the need to create socialist systems necessary for women's freedom; violent attacks on homosexuality; or overwhelming support for conservative public policies?


68) Feminist sociology's insistence that the actor's individual interpretation of goals and relationships, according to Patricia M. Lengermann and Jill Niebrugge-Brantley, must be looked at as a distinct level of analysis and understanding of social action, like so much of feminist sociology, grows out of the study of which of the following?: men's lives as dominant members of society; the lives of homosexuals exclusively; women's lives which seems applicable to the lives of subordinates in general; or the lives of all politicians.


69) With respect to the Issue of Role Taking and the sense of Other, the conventional sociological model of subjectivity as presented to us in the theories of Mead and Schutz, assumes that in the course of role taking, the social actor learns to see the self through the eyes of others deemed more or less the same as the actor. But feminist sociology, according to Patricia M. Lengermann and Jill Niebrugge-Brantley, shows which of the following?: that women are socialized to see themselves through the eyes of children; that women are socialized to see themselves through the eyes of men; that women are socialized to see themselves through the eyes of their mothers; that women are socialized to see themselves through the eyes of the grand-mothers; or that women are socialized to see themselves through the eyes of their sisters


70) The insights of feminism call into question the very existence of a unified generalized other for the majority of people-indeed a postmodernist critique would argue for all people. Which of the following, according to Patricia M. Lengermann and Jill Niebrugge-Brantley, is the main reason for this feminist theory's questioning of the very existence of a unified generalized other?

Is it: the fact there can really be no such thing as generalized others in any society;

the fact that the only true generalized other is that based on women's experiences; the fact that the only true generalized other is provided by children's experiences; or the fact that the truth of a given social situation lies in the intersection of vantage points?


71) In the discussion of The Nature of the Self as a Socla1 Actor, Patricia M. Lengermann and Jill Niebrugge-Brantley present the following arguments except which one?: women may not experience the life-world as something to be mastered according to their own particular interests;

women may be socialized to experience that life-world as a place in which one balances a variety of actors' interests; women may not have the same experience of control of particular spheres of space, free from outside interference; women's sense of time rarely can follow the simple pattern of first things first because they have as a life project the balancing of the interests and projects of others; or women may experience planning and actions as acts of concern for a variety of interests, their own and others, and as acts, above all, of mastery, and not cooperation


72) In the analysis of Consciousness of Everyday Life, feminist sociologists have critically evaluated the thesis of a unified consciousness of everyday life that traditional microsociologists

usually assume. Feminist sociologists stress that for women the most pervasive feature of the cognitive style of everyday life is which of the following?: that of a structured subconsciousness;

that of a bifurcated consciousness; that of unconsciousness; that of false consciousness; or that of class consciousness


73) In the discussion of Consciousness of Everyday Life, Patricia M. Lengermann and Jill Niebrugge-Brantley generalized for women' s subjectivity and for the subjectivity of all subordinates the following except which one?: their experience of role-taking is complicated by their intense awareness that they must learn the expectations of an other who by virtue of differences in power is alien; they must relate not to a generalized other but to many generalized others, many subcultures, both the subculture of the powerful and the various subcultures of the less empowered and the disempowered; they do not experience themselves as purposive social actors who can chart their own course through life though they may be constantly told that they can do so, especially within the American ethos; most pervasively, they live daily with a bifurcated consciousness, a sense of the line of fault between their own lived experiences and what the dominant culture tells them is the social reality; or their unawareness of the impact of the lives, actions, and perceptions of others on their lives.


74) According to Patricia M. Lengermann and Jill Niebrugge-Brantley, the picture of social organization that emerges in feminist sociological theory is highly integrative for the following reasons except which one?: it combines economic activity with other forms of human social production; it sees material production as elaborately linked with ideological production;

it describes the interpenetration of apparently autonomous social institutions and apparently voluntary individual actions and relations; it connects structure to interaction and consciousness; or it redefines the relationship between heterosexual women and homosexual women


75) According to Patricia M. Lengermann and Jill Niebrugge-Brantley, relations of ruling refer to the complex, nonmonolithic but intricately connected social activities that attempt to do which of the following? Is it: establish communist and socialist political regimes around the world;

control human social production; promote the interests of women exclusively; or redefine the relationship between heterosexual women and homosexual women.


76) The three aspects of social life-relations of ruling, local actualities of lived experience, and texts, according to Patricia M. Lengermann and Jill Niebrugge-Brantley, have the following characteristics except which one? Is it: widespread, enduring, constant features of the organization of social life and of domination; can and must be studied as the actions, relationships, and work of embodied human beings; each dimension has its distinctive internal dynamic; or very poorly defined by most feminists?


77) The following are basic domain assumptions of feminist theory except which one?:

it assumes a "woman-centered" approach to the examination and analysis of the social world;

it assumes women are biologically different from men; it assumes that society is male-dominated and oppressive of women; it assumes basic social inequalities between men and women due to women's subordinate position and marginal participation in every society's institutions; or 

it assumes every human society, historically, has always been matriarchal


78) When feminist scholars say feminist theory is "woman-centered" they mean which of the following?: that it involves analyses conducted by women, for women, and about women;

that women it emotions are the driving force behind the theories; that society is really matriarchal; or society is dominated by women after all.


79) The feminist argument that there can be no disinterested observers means which of the following?: knowledge and science are the product of objectivity; science is dominated by those with no emotional attachments to their work; knowledge and science are social products; or there is always room for women in the field of science and technology.


80) Radical feminists tend to view the oppression of women in all male-dominated societies as which of the following?: inevitable; necessary; functional; or promoted by lesbians.


81) The following classical sociologists provided the basic intellectual ideas or roots of

contemporary feminist theory except: Auguste Comte; Emile Durkheim; Karl Marx; Thostein Bunde Veblen; or C. Wright Mills


82) Emile Durkheim contributed to the rise and development of contemporary feminist theory through his views on patriarchy. He viewed patriarchy simply as the following except which one?: a form of division of labor by gender which socialized women into expected roles of subordination; a result of conflicts arising from gender differences and gender inequalities;

a form of discrimination, built into every institution in society, especially the economy; or

a result of women's support of homosexuality.


83) Herbert Spencer contributed to the rise and development of contemporary feminist theory in the following ways except which one?: his concern about the unequal treatment of women; 

his argument that equity knows no difference in sex; his argument that the law of equal freedom manifestly applies to the whole race-female as well as male; his claim that women were emotionally and intellectually inferior to men due to an early arrest of their evolution to reserve vital power for reproduction; or his argument that capitalism produced matriarchy and women's freedom.


84) Which of the following classical sociologists contributed to the rise and development of contemporary feminist theory by arguing that women were the first industrious class in the transition from savagery to Barbarianism, but men removed them from productive labor and put them in conspicuous wasteful activities?: Emile Durkheim; Max Weber; Thorstein Bunde Veben; Georg Simmel; or Auguste Comte


85) Which of the following classical feminist theorists focused on race, gender and class

stratifications as produced by a global capitalist economic system?: Jane Addams; Harriet Martineau; Anna Julia Cooper; Charlotte Perkins Gilman; or Marianne Weber


86) For her contribution to contemporary feminist theory, Harriet Martineau focused on the wage labor of which of the following?: working-class women in factories, agriculture, and domestic service; recent immigrants; children in the Soviet Union; or middle-class white males in corporations.


87) Marianne Weber's contributions to contemporary feminist theory included the following arguments except which one?: argued that the interaction of capitalism and patriarchy creates barriers for women, especially non-elite women, in their attempt to seek greater liberty; argued that the interaction of capitalism and patriarchy creates barriers for women, especially non-elite women, in their attempt to seek greater autonomy; argued that the improvement of women's situation required a reform of the patriarchal household rather than the capitalistic workplace;

or argued that the improvement of women's situation required a reform of the matriarchal society rather than the capitalistic.


88) According to Ritzer (1996, 2000) those opposed to feminist theory do advance the following arguments except which one?: that feminist theory is interdisciplinary therefore there is nothing distinctively sociological about it; that feminist scholars seek to extend their field only in part; that feminist scholars focus mostly on a critical understanding of society, aimed at changing the social world in directions deemed more just and humane; that feminist theory is new, radical, with many of its creators not sociologists, who are closely associated more with activism than with scholarship; or that most of feminist theory is anchored in the major three paradigms.


89) Which of the following is an argument advanced by women from minority groups that can be considered a valid argument against the establishment of a separated, distinct feminist perspective in sociology, comparable to the structural-functionalist perspective? Is it: that feminism is too radical; that feminism is too activist; that feminism reflects only the ideas, values and the worldview of middle-class white women; or that feminism has consistently fought against social welfare programs for women?


90) It can be argued that there is no need to establish a separate and distinct feminist perspective in sociology because feminist theory is very similar to which of the following theoretical perspectives? Is it: the structural-functionalist perspective; the symbolic interactionist perspective; the conflict perspective; or the rational choice perspective?


91) One of the main differences between feminist theory and the conflict perspective is which of the following? Is it that: feminist theory tends to be activist but the conflict perspective is absolutely non-activist; both conflict theory and feminist theory focus on class analysis and the production of goods, but feminist theory, also focuses on the production of all human life by women; conflict theory focuses on class analysis and the production of goods while feminist theory focuses exclusively on women as the producers of all life; or conflict theory can be traced to the work of Karl Marx but feminist theory has no roots in the work of Karl Marx?


92) It can be argued that the idea espoused by feminist theorists that feminist theory is woman-centered is based on which of the following? Is it: the assumption that women have nothing in common; the assumption that society is matriarchal; the assumption that women are all emotional beings; or the assumption that established perspectives in sociology are man-centered?


93) The claim by feminist theorists that feminist theory is woman-centered suggests which of the following?: Is it: that one has to be a woman in order to undertake a legitimate sociological analysis of women's views of social reality, society and social life; that society is matriarchal;

that women's worldview is the same as that of men; or that there can be no disinterest observer in the social sciences?


94) Which of the following is a reasonable argument against attempts to establish a separate and distinct feminist perspective in sociology, comparable to the conflict perspective? Is it: feminist theory is based on a single group in society, women, while existing theoretical perspectives are designed to understand society and its problems in general; feminist theory has no basic domain assumptions at all;. feminist theory has no methodology; or feminist theory is based on the idea that society must be matriarchal while existing theoretical perspectives are designed to understand men's problems?


95) Which of the following is the most sound sociological argument in support of the establishment of a separate and distinct feminist perspective in sociology? Is it: the need for intellectual competition between men and women; the need for political correctness and political activism; the failure of the men who currently dominate the field of sociology to recognize and embrace the unique and valuable contributions of feminist theory to sociology; or the need to preserve the family as the most fundamental institution in society?

96) According to Ritzer (2000), feminist scholars focus on which of the following theoretical concerns in their methodology?: those which call for a description of the social world from women's standpoint; those which reveal the basic characteristics of a matriarchal system; or those which call for an explanation of the social world.


97) According to Ritzer (2000), feminist scholars whose theoretical concern is with explaining the social world in their methodology, tend to ask the following questions except which one? Is it: what does the situation experienced by women mean to them?; why have women's roles been different from those of men?; why have women's roles been less privileged than those of men?; or why have women's roles been subordinate to those of men?


98) According to Shulamit Reinharz (1992), original female research methods focus on

which of the following?: forms of "structured inequality"; forms of "conscious-raising"; forms of "idealization"; forms of "situated others"; or forms of "interconnectedness"


99) Which of the following classical female sociologists translated Auguste Comte's Cours de Philosophie Positive into English? Was it: Jane addams; Anna Julia Cooper; Marianne Weber;

Charlotte Perkins Gilman; or Harriet Martineau?

100) Which of the following is associated with Feminist Standpoint Theory? Is it: Arlie Russell Hochschild; Dorothy E. Smith; Margaret Mead; or Marian Evans?

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