What are the major tenets of Calvinism?
the doctrine of predestination
calling - glorifying God by fulfilling occupation
hard work is a virtue
all of the above
According to Max Weber, which of the following belief systems fostered a worldview that promoted the development of capitalism?
According to Durkheim, when people meet in their communities, establish social relationships, and give each other mutual aid, which of the following functions of religion are they fulfilling?
Emile Durkheim's study of suicide was a way of exploring the larger concept of:
psychological trauma among certain populations.
integration or the lack of it in society.
personality dysfunctions of victims of suicide.
historical development of mental hospitals.
According to Durkheim, ________ is the product of people's commitment and conformity to collective conscience.
a mechanically integrated society
an organically integrated society
Which type of authority is most adaptable to social change?
For Durkheim, the most important function of religion was to:
bring about social cohesion.
ensure that people behave morally.
suppress social revolt.
8 According to Max Weber, in a bureaucracy, the ideal official conducts business with a spirit of:
*a. formalistic impersonality.
According to Herbert Spencer's brand of social Darwinism, people who were being pushed off their land and into the factories and slums of cities
should be cared for by public funds and governmental intervention into their lives.
were less equipped culturally to succeed in an urban environment than people who could innovate and invent.
came from families who had been exploited by industry and were entitled to proper compensation from industrial organizations.
should unite and form powerful organizations against the economic forces that were oppressing them.
The sociologist who pioneered the notion that society was like a living organism and who is associated with the idea of "Social Darwinism" is
George Herbert Mead
Max Weber believed that bureaucracy made social life more
Charismatic authority finds its legitimization in people's belief that their leader
has been duly elected by the people and represents their ideas and interests.
embodies their traditions and customs and thus has a right to lead.
has a right to lead because of his or her ability to govern efficiently and rationally.
has God-given powers to lead them in new directions.
Herbert Spencer believed that:
government should intervene in the lives of the powerless segments of society and stand by them in times of need.
economy should be an arm of government and subject to political process and control.
social evolution could not be improved by means of intentional action.
social development and evolution can be brought about by effective public action through political institutions.
Max Weber's method for analyzing social action, Verstehen, entails:
People who kill themselves out of a sense of duty to the group or self-sacrifice would be termed by Durkheim as:
According to Weber, which of the following is NOT a way bureaucracies "rationalize" human societies?
Norm of efficiency
Which of the following exemplify Weber's concept of traditional authority?
Absolute monarchs of Europe
According to Emile Durkheim, the reason deviant behavior is found in all societies is that:
human beings are naturally selfish and aggressive.
it performs useful social functions.
human beings have not yet developed effective methods of behavior control.
harmful actions are inevitable in mechanically integrated societies.
__________ was the ideology that Max Weber said justified economic success through rational, disciplined hard work.
the Iron Law of Wages
the Protestant Ethic
Durkheim saw anomie as:
weak law enforcement
overemphasis on the welfare of the group
Who suggested that religion can be the cause of major social change rather than the outcome of changes in other institutions?
Max Weber defined social class in terms of
wealth, prestige, and power.
purely economic factors.
Karl Marx's philosophy.
possession of power only.
Durkheim observed that all religions, regardless of their particular doctrines, divide the universe into two mutually exclusive categories:
the natural and the unnatural.
the conventional and the unconventional.
it is the sacred an the profane.
the routine and the remarkable.
Which one of the following is based on rational grounds and anchored in impersonal rules that have been legally enacted?
According to Max Weber churches tend to
express discontent with leadership by becoming more like cults.
become established along rigid denominational lines.
justify inequality within the society in which they exist.
oppose issues when such opposition attracts new members