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Conflict Theory Perspective Capitalist economy causes inequality, conflict and revolutionary change in the superstructure. Use any of the underlined...
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  1. What social institution does college fit within? What is your current status within this institution?
  2. What is one manifest function of college? Is it functioning adequately? How do you know?
  3. What is one way that colleges promote inequality? Explain how this occurs using examples from chapter 1.
  4. Describe a course where you had difficulty learning and eventually succeeded in the course. What symbols and meanings were confusing to you in the course? How did you learn the symbols and their meanings?
  5. Which modern theory were you using in question 2? How do you know this is the theory?
  6. Which modern theory were you using in question 3? How do you know?
  7. Which modern theory were you using in question 4? How do you know?

ConflictDiagram (1) (1).pdf
Conflict Theory Perspective
Capitalist economy causes inequality, conflict and revolutionary change in the superstructure.
Use any of the underlined concepts in your reports. social
capital Civil Superstructure:
culture, media,
education, family,
religion Political Superstructure:
government, military,
police Hegemony = power by
consent power by force Coercion = cultural
capital Economic Base
Private property: land, raw materials, tools, machines,
factories, capital, commodities...
Relationships between people with different statuses in
economy determine relationships in other institutions:
powerful - powerless
bourgeoisie - proletariat
master - slave
men - women
Financial Power social
capital financial
capital Social Relationships according to Conflict Perspectives
Use any of the underlined concepts in your reports.
Groups by
social statuses Economic causes of conflict Civil, Political causes of conflict Responses to Domination 1%
vs.
99% Domination due to structure of economy
– capitalism causes conflict by creating
inequality, alienation from work, high
cost of living, healthcare, higher ed White
vs.
Indian, Black,
Asian, Latino Domination due to structure of economy
– land acquisition, chattel slavery, sharecropping, dual labor markets,
discrimination in pay scales,
gentrification, red-lining Hegemony (soft power) produced by
media outlets, owned by corporations
Persuade masses to vote for interests
of 1% instead of 99%
Culture promotes consumerism
racialization
institutional racism (Jim Crowe laws,
voting restrictions)
stereotype threat Men
vs.
Women Domination due to structure of economy
– corporations favor men as business
owners, workers, leaders patriarchy places men as “head of
household”
sexism occurs in laws, voting patterns
sexual harassment & discrimination U.S. Citizens
vs.
Immigrants Domination due to structure of economy
– businesses hire least expensive workers
and encourage workers to immigrate Ethnocentrism, laws that limit
immigration from specific nations
Prejudice, discrimination
Deportation, build a wall on boarder Younger, Ablebodied
vs.
Older or Disabled Domination due to structure of economy
– businesses want most efficient, lowcost, productive workers with knowledge
of new technology and least cost to
accommodate
Domination due to structure of economy
– criminal justice system supports
interests of businesses, security and
prisons are being privatized prejudice about age & ability
assuming youth have tech skills
assuming disabled people are
ineffective Collective actions change econ., gov’t.
welfare state, socialism, communism
altruism or charity, resistance (violent
or non-violent), acceptance &
assimilation, free-rider problem
double-consciousness
Civil Rights Movement
Intersectionality perspective
anti-racist collective actions
File legal complaint about
discrimination
Feminism, Women’s Movement
intersectionality perspective
consciousness raising
File legal complaint about
discrimination
Crossing boarder without
documentation or purchasing false
documentation
Collective actions (Farm Workers
Union)
American with Disabilities Act
Learn new technology or career
Take a pay cut
File legal complaint about
discrimination
Obey, submit, follow orders
Resist violently or nonviolently
Collective action (Black Lives Matter)
File legal complaint about
discrimination Police
vs.
Citizens Police function with coercion, threat
of physical force (hard power) with
personal discretion
Profiling by race, gender, class…
Cultures of deviance, violence
ConleyCh1 (1).docx
1 The Sociological
Imagination: An Introduction
DIGITAL WWNORTON.COM/YOUMAYASK5 PARADOX A SUCCESSFUL SOCIOLOGIST MAKES THE FAMILIAR STRANGE. QUESTION
EVERYTHING If you want to understand sociology, why don't we start with you. Why are you
taking this class and reading this textbook? It's as good a place to start as any—after all,
sociology is the study of human society, and there is the sociology of sports, of religion, of
music, of medicine, even a sociology of sociologists. So why not start, by way of example, with
the sociology of an introduction to sociology?
For example, why are you bent over this page? Take a moment to write down the reasons. Maybe
you have heard of sociology and want to learn about it. Maybe you are merely following the
suggestion of a parent, guidance counselor, or academic advisor. The course syllabus
probably indi cates that for the first week of class, you are required to read this chapter. So there are at least two good reasons to be reading this introduction to sociol ogy text.
Let's take the first response, "I want to educate myself about sociol ogy." That's a fairly good
reason, but may I then ask why you are taking the class rather than simply reading the book
on your own? Furthermore, assuming that you're paying tuition, why are you doing so? If you
really are here for the education, let me suggest an alternative: Grab one of the course
schedules at your college, decide which courses to take, and just show up! Most introductory
classes are so large that nobody notices if an extra student attends. If it is a smaller, inore
advanced seminar, ask the professor if you can audit it. I have never known a faculty
member who checks that all class attendees are legitimate students at the college in fact, we're
happy when students do show up to class. An auditor, someone who is there for the sake
Sociology the study of human society of pure learning, and who won't be grade grubbing or submitting papers to be
marked, is pure gold to any professor interested in imparting knovvledge for learning's sake.
You know the rest of the drill: Do all the reading (you can usually access the
required texts for free at the library), do your homework, and participate in class
discussion. About the only thing you won't get at the end of the course is a grade.
So give yourself one. As a matter of fact, once you have compiled enough credits
and written a senior thesis, award yourself a diplomia. Why not? You will
probably have received a better education than most students— certainly better
than I did in college.
But what are you going to do with a homemade diploma? You are not just here to
learn; you wish to obtain an actual college degree. Why exactly do you want a
college degree? Students typically answer that they have to get one in order to
earn more money. Others may say that they need credentials to get the job they
want. And some students are in college because they don't know wliat else to do.
Whatever your answer, the fact that you asked yourself a ques tion about
something you may have previously taken for granted is the first step in thinking
like a sociologist. “Thinking like a sociologist” means apply ing analytical tools to
something you have always done without much con scious thought-like opening
this book or taking this class. It requires you to reconsider your assumptions
about society and question what you have taken for granted in order to better
understand the world around you. In other words, thinking like a sociologist
means making the familiar strange.
This chapter introduces you to the sociological approach to the world.
Specifically, you will learn about the sociological imagination, a term coined by C.
Wright Mills. We'll return to the question “Why go to college?” and apply our
sociological imaginations to it. You will also learn what a social institution is. The
chapter concludes by looking at the sociology of sociology—that is, the history of
sociology and where it fits within the social sciences.
individuals in his circumstances. In many ways it is a terrible lesson; in many ways a
magnificent one.” The terrible part of the lesson is to make our own lives ordinary
—that is, to see our intensely personal, private experience of life as typical of the period
and place in which we live. This can also serve as a source of comfort, however,
helping us to realize that we are not alone in our experiences, whether they involve our alienation from the increasingly dog-eat-dog capitalism of modern America,
the peculiar combination of inti macy and dissociation that we may experience on
the Internet, or the ways that nationality or geography affect our life choices. The
sociological imagination does not just leave us hanging with these feelings of recognition, however. Mills writes that it also "enables [us] to take into account how individuals, in the welter of their daily experience, often become falsely conscious
of their social positions.” The sociological imagination thus allows us to see the veneer of social life for what it is, and to step outside the "trap” of rapid historical change
in order to comprehend what is occurring in our world and the social foundations
that may be shifting right under our feet. As Mills wrote after World War II, a time of enormous political, social, and technological change, “The sociological
imagination enables us to grasp history and biography and the relations
between the two within society. That is its task and its promise. To recognize
this task and this promise is the mark of the classic social analyst.” * The Sociological Imagination Sociological imagination the ability to connect the most basic, intimate aspects of an individual's life to seemingly impersonal
and remote historical forces More than 50 years ago, the sociologist C. Wright Mills argued that in the effort to
think critically about the social world around us, we need to use our sociological
imagination, the ability to see the connections between our personal experience
and the larger forces of history. This is just what we are doing when we question
this textbook, this course, and college in gen eral. In The Sociological
Imagination (1959), Mills describes it this way: “The first fruit of this imagination-and the first lesson of the social science that embodies it—is the idea that the
individual can understand his own experi ence and gauge his own fate only by
locating himself within his period, that he can know his own chances in life only
by becoming aware of those of all
Sociologie. Wnight Mills cornuting to Columbia University on his motorcycle: How does Millus concept of the
sociological imagination help w make the familiar strange? 4
Chapter 1: The Sociological Imagination: An Introduction The Sociological Imagination
5 HOW TO BE A SOCIOLOGIST ACCORDING TO QUENTIN TARANTINO: A SCENE
FROM PULP FICTION Have you ever been to a foreign country, noticed how many little things were different,
and wondered why? Have you ever been to a church of a different denomination-or a
different religion altogether-from your own? Or have you been a fish out of water in
some other way? The only guy attending a social event for women, perhaps? Or the
only person from out of state in your dorm? If you have experienced that fish-out-ofwater feeling, then you have, however briefly, engaged your sociological
imagination. By shifting your social environ ment enough to be in a position where
you are not able to take everything for granted, you are forced to see the connections
between particular historical paths taken (and not taken) and how you live your daily life.
You may, for instance, won der why there are bidets in most European bathrooms and
not in American ones. Or why people waiting in lines in the Middle East typically stand closer to each other than they do in Europe or America. Or why, in some
rural Chinese societies, many generations of a family sleep in the same bed. If you
are able to resist your initial impulses toward xenophobia (feelings that may result from
the discomfort of facing a different reality), then you are halfway to understanding other people's lifestyles as no more or less sensible than your own. Once you have truly
adopted the sociological imagination, you can start questioning the links between your per sonal experience and the particulars of a given society without ever leaving home.
In the following excerpt of dialogue from Quentin Tarantino's 1994 film Pulp Fiction, the
character Vincent tells Jules about the "little differences between life in the United States and
life in Europe.
Vincent Vega (John Travolta) describes his visit to a McDonald's in Amsterdam to Jules Winnfield
(Samuel L Jackson) VINCENT: (You know what they put on french fries in Holland instead of ketchup? JULES: What? VINCENT: Mayonnaise,
[...] And I don't mean a little bit on the side of the plate, they fuckin' drown 'em in it. JULES: Vuccch! VINCENT: It's the little differences. A lotta the same shit we got here, they got
there, but there they're a little different. JULES: Example? VINCENT: Well, in Amsterdam,
you can buy beer in a movie theater. And I don't mean in a paper cup either. They give you a glass of beer, like in a bar. In
Paris, you can buy beer at McDonald's. Also, you know
what they call a Quarter Pounder with Cheese in Paris? JULES: They don't call it a Quarter Pounder with Cheese? VINCENT: No, they got the metric system there, they wouldn't know what the
fuck a Quarter Pounder is. JULES: What'd they call it? VINCENT: Royale with
Cheese
Your job as a sociologist is to get into the mind-set that mayonnaise on french fries,
though it might seem disgusting at first, is not strange after all, certainly no more so than
ketchup.
Mills offered his readers a way to stop and take stock of their lives in light of all that had happened in
the previous decade. Of course, we almost always feel that social change is fairly rapid
and continually getting ahead of us. Think of the 1960s or even today, with the rise of
the Internet and global terror threats. In retrospect, we consider the 1950s, the decade when
Mills wrote his seminal work, to be a relatively placid time, when Americans experienced
some relief from the change and strife of World War II and the Great Depres sion. But
Mills believed the profound sense of alienation experienced by many during the postwar
period was a result of the change that had immediately preceded it.
Another way to think about the sociological imagination is to ask ourselves what we take
to be natural that actually isn't. For example, let's return to the question "Why go to
college?” Sociologists and economists have shown that the financial benefits of
education—particularly higher education—appear to be increasing. They refer to this
as the “returns to schooling.” In today's economy, the median (i.e., typical) annual
income for a high-school graduate is $33,904; for those with a bachelor's degree, it is
$55,432 (2012 data; Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2014h). That $21,528 annual
advantage seems like a good deal, but is it really? Let's shift gears and do a little math.
Labor Statistics Consumer Price Index Calculator). The second reason that money
today is worth more than money tomorrow is that we could invest the money today to make more tomorrow.
Using a standard formula to adjust for inflation and bring future amounts into current
dollars, we can determine that paying out $9,400 this year and the higher amounts
over the next three years is equivalent to paying $39,500 in one lump sum today; this
would be the direct cost of attending col lege. Indirect costs—so-called opportunity
costs—exist as well, such as the costs associated with the amount of time you are
devoting to school. Tak ing into account the typical wage for a high-school graduate, not counting differences by gender, age, or level of experience, we can calculate that if you worked full time instead of going to college, you would make $30,000 this year. Thus,
we find that the present value of the total wages lost over the next four years by
choosing full-time school over full-time work is $120,903. Add these opportunity costs to
the direct costs of tuition, and we get $160,403.
Next we need to calculate the "returns to schooling.” For the sake of simplicity, we will mostly
ignore the fact that the differences between high school graduates and college graduates
change over time-given years of experience and the ups and downs of the economy. We will regard the $55,432 annual earnings figure for recent college graduates as fixed for the first ten years past college graduation. We will use a higher estimate for annual earn
ings after that, to take into account the fact that mid-career workers make more. But
remember, those who start working right out of high school begin earning about five
years earlier than those who spend that time in college. The average time it takes to
complete a bachelor's degree at a public univer sity is 4.6 years so we are rounding up to five (National Center for Education Statistics, 2011). Assuming that you attend
college for five years and retire at 65, you will have worked 42 years (high-school grads will
be in the workforce for 47 years because they get a five-year head start). When we
compare your college-degree-holding lifetime earnings to the lifetime earnings of
someone who has only a high-school education, we find that with a college degree you will make about $500,000 more than someone who went straight to
work after high school (Figure 1.1). (To simplify, we are conveniently ignoring the fact
that future money is inherently worth less than present money and that some college
degrees, like those in engineering, lead to higher paying jobs than oth ers.) On top
of this substantial financial return to schooling, one economist found that those with
college degrees were happier, healthier, and less likely to get divorced than their highschool-educated peers, even after controlling for income (Oreopoulos & Salvanes,
2009).
But wait a minute: How do we know for sure that college really mattered in the
equation? Individuals who finish college might earn more because they actually learned
something and obtained a degree, or-a big OR—they might
What Are the True Costs and Returns of College?
Now that you are thinking like a sociologist, let's compare the true cost of going to
college for four or five years to calling the whole thing off and taking a full-time job right
after high school. First, there is the tuition to consider. Let's assume for the sake of
argument you are paying $9,400 per year for tuition (College Board, 2016). That's a lot
less than what most private four-year col leges cost, but about average for in-state
tuition at a state school. (Community colleges, by contrast, are usually much cheaper,
especially because they tend to be commuter schools whose students live off-campus, but they typically do not offer a four-year bachelor's degree.)
In making the decision to attend college, you are agreeing to pay $9,400 this year,
about $9,700 next year, 3.3 percent more the follow ing year, and another 3.3
percent on top of that amount in your senior year to cover tuition hikes and inflation. The
$9,400 you have to pay right now is what hurts the most, because costs in the future are
worth less than expenses today. Money in the future is worth less than money in hand
for several reasons. The first is inflation. We all know that money is not what it used to
be. In fact, taking into account the standard inflation rate—as mea sured by the
government's Consumer Price Index-it took about $17 in 2015 to equal the buying
power of a single dollar back in 1940 (Bureau of
The Sociological Imagination
Chapter 1: The Sociological Imagination: An Introduction
8 9 Figure 1.1: Returns to Schooling
$4,000,000.00 ANNIE (HIGH SCHOOL)
$3,500,000.00 BONNIE (BACHELOR'S DEGREE) $3,000,000.00 $2.500,000.00 Two famous college dropouts Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg (left) attended Harvard but dropped out
before graduating John Mackey (right) quit university before founding Whole Foods $2,000,000.00 LIFETIME EARNINGS*
$1,500,000.00 - $1,000,000.00 earn more regardless of the college experience because people who stay
in school (1) are innately smarter, (2) know how to work the system,
(3) come from wealthier families, (4) can delay gratification, (5) are more
efficient at managing their time, or (6) all of the above-take your pick. In
other words, Yale graduates might not have needed to go to college to earn higher wages; they might have been successful anyway.
Maybe, then, the success stories of Mark Zuckerberg, Steve Jobs, Lady Gaga, and other college dropouts don't cut against the grain so
sharply after all. Maybe they were the savvy ones: Convinced of their
ability to make it on their own, thanks to the social cues they received
(including the fact that they had been admitted to college), they decided that they wouldn't wait four years to try to achieve
success. They opted to just go for it right then and there. College's
"value added,” they might have concluded, was marginal at best.
$500,000.00 - $0.00 – Getting That "Piece of Paper"
- $500,000.00 1
3
5
7
9
11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 NUMBER OF YEARS SINCE HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION
Source: Murray, 2009 Even if college turns out to matter in the end, does it make a difference because
of the learning that takes place there or because of our credential ist society that it aids and abets? The answer to this question has enormous
* This set of hypothetical women-Annie and Bonnle-live in a world that is nol quite ilke reauty We did not flatlen Annie's trajectory to account
for the fact that high sc diploma holders are more likely lo experlence periods of forced part-time work and/or unemployment. We also assumed
the same rate of income increase over tim lle,ralses) for these two, although high school diploma holders are more likely to experience wage slagnation than college
degree holders The Sociological Imagination
11 Our service provides high quality, professional looking replicas. You're the only one who will know it's not real! G Choose from the following academic degrees:
chochool
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Madícts MARA PIC10 We will personalize to include the school ham, your name, preferred area of study, and year of graduation. Transcripts also available to further enhance realism. an alumnus/alumna or otherwise famil iar with the institution, you might
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digital.wwnorton.com/youmayask5 be expected to talk about what dorm you lived
in, reminisce about a particu larly dramatic homecoming game, or gripe
about an especially unreasonable professor. If you slip up on any of this
information, suspicions will grow, and then people might call to check on your graduation status. Perhaps there are some good reasons not to opt
for that $29.95 degree and to pay the costs of college after all.
On a more serious note, the role of credentialism in our society means
To see my interview with Asha Rangappa, go to that
digital wworlon.com/youmaya is, school getting in—especially to a wealthy with plenty of need-based aid available--can make a huge difference for lower income students. I sat down with Asha
Rangappa, the dean of Admissions at Yale Law School (and former FBI agent),
who explained that by the time students are old enough to apply to law school,
middle-class and upper-class students have already been granted all sorts of
opportunities that make them appear to be stronger candidates even if they do not have better moral character or a stronger aptitude for law than
their less affluent counterparts in the same appli cant pool: Mac
Gradual 27 implications for what education means in our soci Need a Diploma?
ety, Imagine, for example, a society where people
No Time to Study?
become doctors not by doing well on the SATS, We Can Help!
going to college, taking premed courses, acing the MCATs, and then
spending more time in the
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doctor-among the most prestigious and highly Private. Confidential.
paid occupations in our society-starts with emp Authentic-looking raised gold foil seals!
Overnight service. Arrives in an unmarked box. tying bedpans as a nurse's aide and working your way up through the
ranks of registered nurse, apprentice physician, and so forth; finally, after
years of on-the-job training, you achieve the title of doctor. Social theorist
Randall Collins has pro
posed just such a medical education system in
1.D. Cards and Certificates the controversial The Credential Society: A Histori cal Sociology of
Education and Stratification (1979), which argues that the expansion of
higher educa tion has merely resulted in a ratcheting up of cre dentialism
and expenditures on formal education
rather than reflecting any true societal need for OR DO IT YOURSELF AT HOME:
Download 100% more formal education or opening up opportunity customizable templates to create
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If Collins is correct and credentials are what
matter most, then isn't there a cheaper, faster way College bulletin boards are covered
with advertisements like this one promoting websites that generate diplomas. Why are these to get them? In
fact, all you need are $29.95 and a
little guts, and you can receive a diploma from one of the many online sites
that promise either legitimate degrees from nonac credited colleges or a
faux college diploma from any school of your choosing. Thus, why not save four years and lots of money and obtain your credentials immediately?
Obviously, universities have incentives to prevent such websites from
undermining their exclusive authority over degree-conferring ability. They
rely on a number of other social institutions, ranging from copyright law to
magazines that publish rankings to protect their status. Despite universities'
interest in protecting their reputations, I had never had a university
employer verify my education claims when applying to teach until 2015
when I moved to Princeton. Every other employer, including NYU, accepted
my résumé without calling my graduate or undergraduate universities. NYU
does check to make sure student applicants have completed high school,
however. Are universities too lazy to care? Probably not.
There are strong informal mechanisms by which universities protect their
status. First, there is the university's alumni network. Potential employers
rarely call a university's registrar to make sure you graduated, but they will
expect you to talk a bit about your college experience. If your interviewer is
Kindergarten Diploma . GED.. Birth Certificate – Passport
Marriage Certilicate . Divorce Certificate . Green Card Social Security Card - Actor's Guild 10 - Beautician Certificate Motor Vehicle Bill of Sale •
Driver's License . Press Card Ordained Minister - Real Estate License – Travel Agent Police Academy - Special Agent - Private Investigalor
Bodyguard • Black Belt Instructor – Sales Achievement
Commercial Pilot • Flight Instructor and More! fake diplomas not worth it? I read anywhere from three thousand, four thousand applications a year, and 1
do a kind of character and personality assessment. I decide who gets in. ... I
think that there's a meritocracy at the point where I'm doing it, but I think accessing the good opportunities that allow you to take advantage of the
meritocracy is limited. I think that's the problem, I think that's what some body like
me in my position works very hard to correct for. When twenty-two to twenty-five
years of someone's life are behind them, it is too late to correct the disparity in
access that really needed to have been corrected from like zero to five years, zero to
ten years. Do I think that people who have had access to more resources and
opportunities and money are going to do better in the admissions process? Yeah. Because they're just going to have the richer background. And [admis sions counselors) have to be able to be in a position where [we)
can afford to account for that and take the risk. (Conley, 2015a)
What's more, law schools' rankings in magazines like US News and World
Report are impacted by the average LSAT scores of their incom ing classes.
Rangappa's school, Yale, is so elite that it is able to maintain its The Sociological Imagination
13
12
Chapter 1: The Sociological Imagination: An Introduction ranking even if its average LSAT score drops a little. But for other schools, a drop
in LSAT scores will cause their ranking to drop, leading to a decline in highquality applicants and a further drop in rankings. From Rangappa's perspective:
Social institution a complex group of interdependent positions that, together, perform a social role and reproduce
themselves over time; also defined in a narr...
This is the end of the preview. Download to see the full text
Functions of Institutions Chart (1).pdf
Functionalist Perspective
Social Institutions
Kinship Group/Family
Monogamy = 1 partner
Polygamy = 1 + partners
Patrilineal = father’s line
Matrilineal = mother’s line
Endogamy = Forms &
Organizations
Nuclear, Extended,
Single-parent,
Blended family,
Bi-nuclear,
Same-sex parents,
Singlehood,
Cohabitation Exogamy = Individual
Statuses
Mother, Father,
Grandparent,
Ancestor,
Child,
Step-brother/sister,
Cousin, Aunt, Uncle,
Fictive kin,
Other mother Functions of Institutions
Determines kinship within society
Regulates sexual norms, activity
Produces next generation
Performs the task of child rearing
In a nuclear structure, roles of men
and women complement each other
and provide models for children Polyandry = Nuclear family provides productive
workers and child nurturers to
replace parents Polygyny = Provide statuses for individuals Religion
Theism = Judaism, Islam,
Christianity, Hindu
Ethicalism = Buddhism,
Daoism
Animism = Totemism
Secularism =
Social movement =
Collective conscience = Education
Learning in a formal
social structure
Privately funded =
Publicly funded = Related Concepts Dysfunctions occur if needs not met. Sect, Cult, Synagogue,
Temple, Church,
Prayer Group,
Mosque,
Congregation,
Denomination,
Evangelicals,
Fundamentalists,
Megachurch Rabbi, Priest, Pope,
Bishop, Pastor,
Imam, Reverend,
Lay leader, Shaman
Believer, Faithful,
Evangelicals,
Fundamentalists,
Atheist, Agnostic Provides beliefs about supernatural School, College,
University, Daycare
Center, Workforce
Training Center, GED
program, ParentTeacher Org., School
Board Instructors/Faculty,
Student, Athlete,
Principal, Dean,
Administrative
staff, Adviser, Board
member, Coach,
Cheerleader, Parent Transmits knowledge from one
generation to the next Regulates human relationship to
supernatural, gives meaning to life
and death
Determines important values and
norms, acts as moral authority
Provides social cohesion by
strengthening collective conscience Socializes children into common
norms and values
Integrates immigrants and other
“outsiders” into a culture
Teaches skills and knowledge for
specific jobs or careers
Sort students into groups to prepare
for future careers and jobs Traditional family
Kinship networks
Pre-industrial family
Public sphere (men’s work)
Private sphere (women’s work)
Cult of domesticity
Baby boom
Gender factory
Domestic abuse
Miscegenation
Pecking order
Second shift
Matriarchy
Sacred, Profane
Denomination, Congregation
Opiate of the masses
Protestant ethic, Predestination
Pluralism, Sacred canopy
Religious experience
Reflexive spirituality
Supernatural compensators
Commercialization of holy days
Hidden curriculum
Social capital
Cultural capital
Tracking
Credentialism
Meritocracy
Affirmative Action
Stereotype threat
Achievement gap
Vouchers Functionalist Perspective
Social Institutions
Medicine/Healthcare
Treatment = prevent &
cure disease, alleviate
pain
Research = scientifically
develop treatment
Healthcare Systems =
Employer-based system
Fee-for-service model
Health Maintenance Org.
Single-payer system Authority & State
State = community that
claims legitimate use of
force within a territory
Politics = Power relations
Legitimate authority =
justifiable right to rule
(charismatic, traditional,
legal-rational)
Paradox of authority Economy
Feudalism, Capitalism,
Socialism, Communism
Service sector
Private = business owned
by an individual or
corporation
Public = agency or
organization owned by a
government, collective Forms &
Organizations Individual
Statuses Functions of Institutions Hospital, Clinic,
Insurance Comp.,
Pharmaceutical
Comp.,
Psychiatric treatment
facility,
American Medical
Association,
Centers for Disease
Control,
National Institute of
Health, CHIP Physician, Nurse,
Nurse Practitioner,
Researcher,
Psychiatrist,
Dentist,
Medical Technician,
Mid-wife,
Chiropractor,
Patient, Client Organizes and provides healthcare
products and services for members
of society Nation, Legislature,
Executive branch,
Judiciary, Agency,
Interest groups,
Police, Prison,
Public School,
Welfare State,
Political party,
Democracy,
Dictatorship,
International state
system
Corporation, Business,
Bank, School,
Consumer
organization,
Insurance company,
Hospital,
Credit bureau,
Cooperative,
Stock-market,
Charity, Post Office Political leader,
Citizen, Ruler,
Monarch, Judge,
Lawyer, Teacher,
Agent of IRS, FBI,
CIA, Mayor,
Representative,
Administrator,
Voter, Candidate Organizes and regulates the
legitimate use of power Stockholder,
Employer,
Employee,
Customer,
Consumer, Creditor,
Debtor, Inspector,
Administrator,
Manager, CEO, COO Organizes and regulates the
production and distribution of goods
and services through markets Related Concepts Dysfunctions occur if needs not met. Prevents spread of disease
Adopts scientific and technological
inventions to improve healthcare and
medication
Provides statuses for individuals in
various conditions of health Organizes decision-making for society
Establishes and enforces laws to
provide social control
Protects society from outsiders Provides basic necessities for life
Provides jobs, statuses, privileges to
individuals
Provides goods and services for other
institutions Medicalization
Biomedical culture
Sick role
Social construction of illness
Mortality, Morbidity
Epigenetic mark
Prenatal determinants of health
Postnatal determinants of health
Diagnostic psychiatry, DSM
Talk therapy, Drug therapy
Cause vs. Effect of poverty & health
Routinization, Rationalization
Bureaucracy, Specialization
Taylorism, Meritocracy
Obedience in Milgram experiment
Power, Domination, Coercion
Individual rights (citizenship, civil,
political, social)
3 dimensions of power, Soft power
Collective action problem
Public policy
Game theory
Altruism
Agricultural revolution
Industrial revolution
Profit, Standard of living
Alienation
Family wage
Globalization
Monopoly, Oligopoly
Productivity enhancing
Rent seeking
Offshoring
Union, Union busting
SymbInterDiagram.pdf
Symbolic-interactionism Perspective/Approach/Paradigm
Individuals learn ideas and
behaviors in the social
environment and culture. Socialization = Learner + Agent of Socialization
Social Interaction = Actions + Reactions
Individuals develop a social self,
according to Mead’s Stages:
Imitation
Play
Games Social Construction of Reality
Culture = Groups of
people construct
values and norms. Groups of people
construct statuses and
roles within groups. Groups of people create symbols and give them meaning.
Dramaturgical Theory =
individual performs their
“self” for others using
symbols and meanings of
the cultures in groups. Individual may adopt the symbols and meanings,
reject the symbols and/or meanings,
change symbols and/or meanings.

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