e F 4 3 Heart attack is one of the leading causes of death in many countries and cigarette smoking is the most preventable risk factor for heart...
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Q1.

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Q2.

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e F
4 3 Heart attack is one of the leading causes of death in many countries and cigarette smoking
is the most preventable risk factor for heart attack. In a particular population, 20% of people
suffered a heart attack, 16% of people are current smokers, and 12% of people had a heart
attack while they were smokers. Let event A be a person who is a current smoker and event B
be a person who had heart attack.
a) Construct a Venn diagram to show the relationship between having a heart attack and
current smoking.up
smoon
b) Calculate P(A), P(B), P(AB), and P(AB).
nom eco lis To esluzat or enw waled alder ant via
bide quewellat
c) If a person is randomly selected from current smokers, what is the probability that this
person would suffer a heart attack?
d) if a person is randomly selected from current non-smokers, what is the probability that this
person would suffer a heart attack?
e) What is the risk of having a heart attack for current smokers? What is the risk of having a
heart attack for current non-smokers?
f) What is the relative risk of suffering a heart attack for current smokers compared to current
non-smokers? What is the relative risk comparing current non-smokers to current smokers?
g) What are the odds of having a heart attack among those who are current smokers? What are
the odds of having a heart attack among current non-smokers?
h) What is the odds ratio of having a heart attack for current smokers compared to current non-
smokers? What would be the odds ratio comparing current non-smokers to current smokers?

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4.4 Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a condition that causes serious adverse perinatal
outcomes in pregnancy. It is estimated that approximately 11.7% of women have GDM during
pregnancy. A clinic trial was initiated to test a screening method for GDM among 37 pregnant
women who had GDM and 33 pregnant women without GDM. The results are listed below
Test (+)
Test (-)
Total
Women with GDM
36
Women without GDM
2
lent ninemow ano
1
37
31
33
a) What is the sensitivity?
b) What is the specificity?
picewol ent ni nomow gnoms isab yo, offender ord et darwin
c) What is the probability of false negative?
ismi woy el JerW felliniup teswol erial nom
d) What is the probability of false positive?
mow gnoms riisab not offerleh ordi ed andw la
e) What is the prior probability of GDM?
gaini woy at darlW felliniup fearigur andf ninem
Suppose a pregnant woman has not yet seen a gynecologist/obstetrician but she has a
positive GDM screening test. What is the probability this pregnant woman has GDM?

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