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1.5.4 According to researchers, a coin flip may not have a 50% chance of landing heads and a
50% chance of landing tails. In fact, they believe that a coin is more likely to land the same way
it started. So if it starts out heads up, it is more likely to land heads up. Suppose someone tests
this hypothesis with 1000 flips of a coin where it starts out heads up each time.
a) Describe what the symbol it stands for in this context.
b) State your null and alternative hypotheses.
c) Suppose 52% of the sample of 1000 flips landed heads facing up. Verify the validity
conditions that allow us to use a theory-based test.
d) A theory-based test reports a standardized statistic of 1.26. Interpret what this means.
e) A theory-based test reports a p-value of 0.1030. State your conclusion in terms of
strength of evidence and what that means in the context of the study.

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