Question

# please help i am lost

To determine if *Reiki* is an effective method for treating pain, a pilot

study was carried out where a certified second-degree *Reiki* therapist provided treatment on volunteers. Pain was measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS) immediately before and after the *Reiki* treatment (Olson & Hanson, 1997). The data is in is in following table:

**Table: Pain Measures Before and After Reiki Treatment**

**VAS before**

**VAS after **

**before **6

**after **3

**before **2

**after **1

**before **2

**after **0

**before **9

**after **1

**before **3

**after **0

**before **3

**after **2

**before **4

**after **1

**before **5

**after **2

**before **2

**after **2

**before **3

**after **0

**before **5

**after **1

**before **1

**after **0

**before **6

**after **4

**before **6

**after **1

**before **4

**after **4

**before **4

**after **1

**before **7

**after **6

**before **2

**after **1

**before **4

**after **3

**before **8

**after **8

Does the data show that *Reiki* treatment reduces pain? Test at the 5% level.

** if μ**

_{1}

*= mean VAS before**Reiki*treatment and*μ*_{2}

**= mean VAS after**

*Reiki*treatment. Which of the following statements correctly defines the null hypothesis*H*_{O}

**?**

**A. μ**

_{1}

**−**

*μ*_{2}

*>*0 (*μ*_{d}

*> 0)*B. *μ*_{1}* - μ*_{2}* *< 0 (*μ*_{d}* *< 0)

C. *μ*_{1}** - μ**

_{2}

*=*0*(**μ*_{d}

*= 0)***D. μ**

_{1}

*+ μ*_{2}

*= 0**Enter letter corresponding to correct answer*

** (ii) Let μ**

_{1}

*= mean VAS before**Reiki*treatment. Let*μ*_{2}

**= mean VAS after**

*Reiki*treatment. Which of the following statements correctly defines the null hypothesis*H*_{O}

**?**

**A. μ**

_{1}

**−**

*μ*_{2}

*<*0 (*μ*_{d}

*< 0)*B. *μ*_{1}* - μ*_{2}* *> 0 (*μ*_{d}* *> 0)

C. *μ*_{1}** - μ**

_{2}

*=*0*(**μ*_{d}

*= 0)***D. μ**

_{1}

*+ μ*_{2}

*= 0**Enter letter corresponding to correct answer*

** **

** **

** **

** (iii) Enter the level of significance α used:**

*Enter in decimal form. Examples of correctly entered answers: *0.01 0.02 0.05 0.10

(iv) Determine sample mean of differences x¯d

*Enter in decimal form to nearest hundredth (no spaces) Examples of correctly entered answers: *

0.01 3.37 -11.47 21.00

**(v) Determine sample standard deviation of differences s**

_{d}

*Enter in decimal form to nearest ten-thousandth. Examples of correctly entered answers: *

0.0001 0.0200 3.5607 -0.0074

* *

** (vi) Calculate and enter test statistic**

*Enter value in decimal form rounded to nearest ten-thousandth, with appropriate sign (no spaces). Examples of correctly entered answers:*

-2.0104 -0.3070 +1.6000 +11.0019

** (vii) Determine degrees of freedom for the sample of differences df**

_{d}

*:**Enter value in integer form. Examples of correctly entered answers:*

2 5 9 23 77

** (viii) Using tables, calculator, or spreadsheet: Determine and enter p-value corresponding to test statistic.**

*Enter value in decimal form rounded to nearest ten-thousandth. Examples of correctly entered answers:*

0.0001 0.0021 0.0305 0.6004 0.8143 1.0000

** **

**(ix) Comparing p-value and α value, which is the correct decision to make for this hypothesis test? **

**A. Accept H**

_{o}

**B. Fail to reject H**

_{o}

**C. Reject H**

_{o}

**D. Accept H**

_{A}

*Enter letter corresponding to correct answer.*

** **

**(x) Select the statement that most correctly interprets the result:**

**A. The result is statistically significant at .05 level of significance. Sufficient evidence exists to support the claim that the Reiki treatment reduces pain. **

B. The result is statistically significant at .05 level of significance. There is not enough evidence to support the claim that the *Reiki* treatment reduces pain.

C. The result is not statistically significant at .05 level of significance. There is not enough evidence to support the claim that the *Reiki* treatment reduces pain.

D. The result is not statistically significant at .05 level of significance. Sufficient evidence exists to support the claim that the *Reiki* treatment reduces pain.

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