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# please help i am lostTo determine if Reiki is an effective method for treating pain, a pilot

study was carried out where a certified second-degree Reiki therapist provided treatment on volunteers. Pain was measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS) immediately before and after the Reiki treatment (Olson & Hanson, 1997). The data is in is in following table:

Table: Pain Measures Before and After Reiki Treatment

VAS before

VAS after

before 6

after 3

before 2

after 1

before 2

after 0

before 9

after 1

before 3

after 0

before 3

after 2

before 4

after 1

before 5

after 2

before 2

after 2

before 3

after 0

before 5

after 1

before 1

after 0

before 6

after 4

before 6

after 1

before 4

after 4

before 4

after 1

before 7

after 6

before 2

after 1

before 4

after 3

before 8

after 8

Does the data show that Reiki treatment reduces pain? Test at the 5% level.

if μ1 = mean VAS before Reiki treatment and μ2 = mean VAS after Reiki treatment. Which of the following statements correctly defines the null hypothesis HO?

A.  μ1 − μ2 > 0 (μd > 0)

B.  μ1 - μ2 < 0 (μd < 0)

C.  μ1 - μ2 = 0  (μd = 0)

D.  μ1 + μ2 = 0

Enter letter corresponding to correct answer

(ii)  Let μ1 = mean VAS before Reiki treatment. Let μ2 = mean VAS after Reikitreatment. Which of the following statements correctly defines the null hypothesis HO?

A.  μ1 − μ2 < 0 (μd < 0)

B.  μ1 - μ2 > 0 (μd > 0)

C.  μ1 - μ2 = 0  (μd = 0)

D.  μ1 + μ2 = 0

Enter letter corresponding to correct answer

(iii) Enter the level of significance α used:

Enter in decimal form. Examples of correctly entered answers:  0.01  0.02   0.05   0.10

(iv)  Determine sample mean of differences  x¯d

Enter in decimal form to nearest hundredth (no spaces) Examples of correctly entered answers:

0.01    3.37     -11.47    21.00

(v) Determine sample standard deviation of differences sd

Enter in decimal form to nearest ten-thousandth. Examples of correctly entered answers:

0.0001   0.0200    3.5607    -0.0074

(vi) Calculate and enter test statistic

Enter value in decimal form rounded to nearest ten-thousandth, with appropriate sign (no spaces). Examples of correctly entered answers:

-2.0104     -0.3070       +1.6000      +11.0019

(vii) Determine degrees of freedom for the sample of differences dfd :

Enter value in integer form. Examples of correctly entered answers:

2   5   9   23   77

(viii) Using tables, calculator, or spreadsheet: Determine and enter p-value corresponding to test statistic.

Enter value in decimal form rounded to nearest ten-thousandth. Examples of correctly entered answers:

0.0001   0.0021    0.0305   0.6004    0.8143   1.0000

(ix) Comparing p-value and α value, which is the correct decision to make for this hypothesis test?

A. Accept Ho

B. Fail to reject Ho

C. Reject Ho

D. Accept HA

Enter letter corresponding to correct answer.

(x) Select the statement that most correctly interprets the result:

A. The result is statistically significant at .05 level of significance. Sufficient evidence exists to support the claim that the Reiki treatment reduces pain.

B. The result is statistically significant at .05 level of significance. There is not enough evidence to support the claim that the Reiki treatment reduces pain.

C. The result is not statistically significant at .05 level of significance. There is not enough evidence to support the claim that the Reiki treatment reduces pain.

D. The result is not statistically significant at .05 level of significance. Sufficient evidence exists to support the claim that the Reiki treatment reduces pain.

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