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# To what extent is seeking help a matter of mindset? One recent study

gave students a reminder that everyone struggles; this mindset intervention caused the students to seek more help and do better in school (Yeager et al., 2016). A chemistry teacher tries this intervention in her organic chemistry class. All students were given the mindset intervention at the beginning of the semester (the reminder that everyone struggles). At the end of the semester, all students took the American Chemistry Society Organic Chemistry Exam, a standardized test administered throughout the USA: µ = 36.99, σ = 10.62. For the students with the mindset intervention, the professor finds: M = 41.2, N = 25.
a. Use the NSHT approach with a = 0.05 to test the results the professor obtained against the null hypothesis that the intervention has no benefit (H0: µintervention = 36.99). First calculate a z value, then use the z table or Excel calculation to get the two-tailed p value, then make a decision to reject or fail to reject the null.

b. Now use the estimation approach to analyse the extent to which the intervention might be useful. Calculate SE for the sample, then the 95% MoE, and then the 95% CI. Interpret your result.

c. Compare and contrast the two approaches. Which do you feel would be more informative for others who are considering implementing this intervention? Why?

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