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Nownes (2000) surveyed representatives of interest groups who were registered as lobbyists of three U. state legislatures.

21. Nownes (2000) surveyed representatives of interest groups who were registered as lobbyists of three U.S. state legislatures. One of the issues he studied was whether interest groups are in competition with each other. Table 1–10 shows the results for one such question. (a) Using this table as an example, explain the idea of a frequency table to a person who has never had a course in statistics. (b) Explain the general meaning of the pattern of results.

22. Mouradian (2001) surveyed college students selected from a screening session to include two groups: (a) “Perpetrators”—students who reported at least one violent act (hitting, shoving, etc.) against their partner in their current or most recent relationship—and (b) “Comparisons”—students who did not report any such uses of violence in any of their last three relationships. At the actual testing session, the students first read a description of an aggressive behavior such as “Throw something at his or her partner” or “Say something to upset his or her partner.” They then were asked to write “as many examples of circumstances of situations as [they could] in which a person might engage in behaviors or acts of this sort with or towards their significant other.” Table 1–11 shows the “Dominant Category of Explanation” (the category a participant used most) for females and males, broken down by comparisons and perpetrators. (a) Using this table as an example, explain the idea of a frequency table to a person who has never had a course in statistics. (b) Explain the general meaning of the pattern of results. A.) If I were to explain the idea of this type of frequency table, I would first explain that this is called a group frequency table in which two groups of people (in this case men and women) are being compared against one another. This frequency table is also comparing ‘perpetrators’ and ‘comparisons’ in both categories of sex. B.) The general meaning of the pattern of results implies that in the female category, 33% of Comparisons said rejection was the leading cause of aggression, while 27% of Perpetrators felt control was a main motive for aggression. In the male category, 32% of Perpetrators said aggression was expressive, while 31% of the comparisons felt rejection was the main cause of aggression. Both categories and both sexes replied to eight different categories and the results were then charted for ease of interpretation.

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