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# 1. Complete problem 4 on page 419. Problem 4. Which of these studies might be analyzed with a correlation?

Statistics Help Needed: SPSS

1. Complete problem 4 on page 419. Problem 4. Which of these studies might be analyzed with a correlation? a. The which group has a higher reading comprehension level—dyslexic children versus ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) children b. The amount of religious commitment and frequency of attendance at religious services c. The number of doctor visits and income level d. The soft drink preferences of college students ***CAPTION FROM TEXTBOOK : This portion is just for your information. Experimental Versus Correlational Studies In Modules 12 to 33 , we measured the effect of an independent variable on a dependent variable. Then, we tested the result for statistical significance, effect size, and power. In each of the studies. There were at least two groups that differed on the independent variable. We then examined whether the independent variable (the defining difference between the groups) caused the effect in the dependent variable. In this module, we begin to look at data from a new perspective. We will look at correlational studies. In a correlational study, we have only a single group of subjects rather than two or more groups. In addition, each of the subjects has a score on two different variables. Also, in a correlational study, we do not seek cause-and-effect relationships between independent and dependent variables. Rather, we simply want to know whether or not the scores on two variables are related. Sometimes correlational studies are used to establish the properties of the tests themselves. The SAT, for example, is given on multiple test dates throughout the year. Students taking the test on one date do not answer the same questions as students taking the test on another date. Rather, there are parallel forms of the test—a different form for each date. Scores have the same meaning regardless of which form students take because the test forms are comparable. But how do the test developers know that the scores are comparable? During the test development process. They gave the same students (note the single group of subjects) two different forms of the test (note the two variables). Then. They compared the students' scores on both tests (note the correlation). They found that the scores were similar for the same students on both forms of the test. This type of correlation is called test reliability. Most of the time, correlational studies are used for prediction rather than for establishing the reliability of the tests themselves. That is, we seek to establish relationships so that the score of a person on one variable can be used to predict that person's probable score on a second variable. For example, once a relationship is established between the number of hours children watch television and children's academic performance in school, we can predict any given child's probable academic performance in school just by knowing the number of hours of television he or she watches. Similarly, a researcher interested in prediction may want to know the relationship between • the amount of time students study and their grade on a test, • the amount of antidepressant medication clients take and their reported mood level, • air temperature and crime rate,
• income and years of education, • height and weight, and • IQ and shoe size (do you think there is any relationship?). What are two common uses of correlations? Complete the following table to compare and contrast studies analyzed by three different statistics. 2. Complete problem 12 on page 425. Problem 12 . For each of the following, indicate whether the expected relationship between the two variables will be positive (+), negative (−), or zero (0): ____a. size of house and size of electric bill ____b. height of parents and height of children ____c. air humidity level and people's energy level ____d. number of books read per year and age at which got first eyeglasses ____e. hours spent at the beach and depth of tan ***CAPTION on next page FROM TEXTBOOK : This portion is just for your information. If two variables are negatively correlated. Then as the values of one variable go up. The values of the other variable go down. For example. The relationship between the number of absences in a course and score on the final exam in that course is negative. In other words. The more often students are absent from class. The lower their grades tend to be on the final exam. You can see this pattern in the lower scatterplot in Figure 34.4 . Note the direction of the data points. With a negative relationship. The data points go from the upper left to the lower right. He seemed to have very strong intuitions but unfortunately of negative sign. —the biologist Francis Crick, referring to René Thom, in What Mad Pursuit Let's return to the set of quiz scores from the beginning of this module. Judging from the scatterplot shown in Figure 34.5 , what is the approximate strength of the relationship? What is the direction of the relationship?
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1. Complete problem 4 on page 419.
Problem 4. Which of these studies might be analyzed with a correlation? a.
The which group has a higher reading comprehension level—dyslexic children versus...

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