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1. Which of the following cultural or intellectual movements sought to justify the social order of the Gilded Age?

1.      Which of the following cultural or intellectual movements sought to justify the social order of the Gilded Age?


 a. Social Gospel

 b. Utopianism

 c. Gospel of Wealth

 d. Settlement Houses



2.      Question refers to the image below.


Drawing shows an owner of wine and beer store putting up sign that states, As long as it is the law it shall be enforced, Theo. Roosevelt, and a man representing Tammany Hall. The caption reads, A rational law or Tammany. Tammany. Goin to wait till dem reformers repeal dat law, are yer? Put me back and you wont need to repeal. See?

The storeowner is putting up a sign that says, "As long as it is the law it shall be enforced, Theo. Roosevelt." The caption underneath reads, "A rational law, or—Tammany. Tammany.—Goin' to wait till dem reformers repeal dat law, are yer? Put me back and you won't need to repeal! See?"—Charles Jay Taylor, from Puck magazine, 1895


Who would have been least likely to speak out against activities such as the one depicted in this image?


 Farmers who sold their goods in urban markets, with big business owners being the biggest customers

 Recent migrants and the poor, who often depended on the political machines for jobs and resources

 Business managers who needed help understanding local and federal restrictions

 Store owners who benefited from the neighborhood management by political bosses


3.      What were the goals of the New Deal?


 Relief, recovery, reform

 Reduction, recovery, regulation

 Relief, removal, restructuring

 Reaction, reduction, regulation


4.      Question refers to the image above.


Photograph shows Richard Nixon on the steps of the presidential helicopter holding up both of his arms with his fingers in a, V, pose.

Former President Nixon leaves the White House following his resignation, 1974


The event shown here was an effect of which two major incidents?

 The release of the Pentagon Papers and the Watergate investigation

 The failure of the United States in Vietnam and a nuclear disaster

 A Supreme Court decision and an assassination attempt

 An impeachment trial and a public policy failure


5.      Question refers to the excerpt below.


"If protected conduct is made criminal and the law which does so remains unexamined for its substantive validity, its stigma might remain even if it were not enforceable as drawn for equal protection reasons. When homosexual conduct is made criminal by the law of the State, that declaration in and of itself is an invitation to subject homosexual persons to discrimination both in the public and in the private spheres. ... The Texas statute furthers no legitimate state interest which can justify its intrusion into the personal and private life of the individual. ... They (the writers of the Constitution and its amendments) knew times can blind us to certain truths and later generations can see that laws once thought necessary and proper in fact serve only to oppress. As the Constitution endures, persons in every generation can invoke its principles in their own search for greater freedom."—Justice Anthony Kennedy, from the Opinion of the Court in Lawrence v. Texas, 2003


What does this ruling reveal about the conservative political movement in the United States?


 It has had success at all levels and in all branches of government.

 It has faced opposition in its aims to legislate moral behavior.

 It has continued to grow and succeed in addressing current issues.

 It has suffered a steady decline in significance and influence.


6.      Question refers to the image below.


A painting shows a large group of African Americans moving through doors labelled Chicago, New York, and St. Louis.


What precipitated the situation illustrated by the image?


 The growth of large industrial centers in the Northeast and Midwest

 Farm foreclosures due to crop failures and natural disasters in the South

 The offer of free land for agricultural development in the West

 An increase in nativist sentiment and discriminatory practices in the North



7.      Both the Civil Rights movement and the women's rights movement organized protests to raise public awareness about discrimination against minorities and women. How did the strategies of the Civil Rights movement differ from those of the women's rights movement?


 The Civil Rights movement remained entirely peaceful, while the women's rights movement sometimes turned to violence.

 The Civil Rights movement gradually became more radical, while the women's rights movement gradually became more moderate.

 The Civil Rights movement frequently used direct actions, while the women's rights movement frequently used symbolic protests.

 The Civil Rights movement focused on convincing political leaders to change, while the women's rights movement focused on convincing the public to change.


8.      Which of the following did not contribute to a resurgence of conservatism in the late 1970s through the 1980s?


 Tax cuts aimed at the wealthy

 Growth of religious fundamentalism

 Decline of public trust in government

 Political activism against liberal programs



9.      Which of the following reflects a Gilded Age-era development that sought to correct social inequities or economic problems of the time?


 Plessy v. Ferguson upheld segregation as long as facilities were "separate but equal."

 The American Protective Association battled a perceived attempt of the Roman Catholic Church to control society.

 The Chinese Exclusion Act banned international migration from China.

 The Interstate Commerce Act established regulations for the railroad industry.


10.  The main minority group represented by the United Farm Workers was


 African Americans

 Asian Americans

 Latino Americans

 American Indians



11.  Question refers to the image below.


Cartoon illustration has the title, Health Coverage. It shows two beds, each with an occupant who appears stressed and sweating. In the first, the person is crushed by a pile of papers labeled, Multi-billion dollar paperwork costs. The footboard of the bed has a line graph labeled, U.S. Healthcare System, with a line that extends upward beyond the edges of the graph. In the second bed, the person is uncovered and shivering. The footboard of this bed has text that reads, Over 33 million Americans not insured.

"Health coverage," by Herb Block, published in the Washington Post, May 3, 1991



Why was health care reform a significant public debate in the 1990s?


 The majority of people who were unable to access medical care were illegal immigrants.

 Free trade agreements had led to a surge in demand for American health care.

 Most people agreed changes were needed, but they opposed raising taxes for it.

 Costs for medical care were rising, and fewer people had access to adequate care.


12.  In the late 1800s, business leaders limited and eliminated competition by


 increasing prices

 designing new products

 creating overseas markets

 forming monopolies


13.  Question refers to the excerpt below.


"The long trial has proved that the object for which Spain has waged the war cannot be attained. The fire of insurrection may flame or may smolder with varying seasons, but it has not been, and it is plain that it cannot be, extinguished by present methods. The only hope of relief and repose from a condition which can no longer be endured is the enforced pacification of Cuba. In the name of humanity, in the name of civilization, in behalf of endangered American interests which give us the right and the duty to speak and to act, the war in Cuba must stop. In view of these facts and of these considerations, I ask the Congress to authorize and empower the President to take measures to secure a full and final termination of hostilities between the government of Spain and the people of Cuba, and to secure in the island the establishment of a stable government, capable of maintaining order and observing its international obligations, insuring peace and tranquillity and the security of its citizens as well as our own, and to use the military and naval forces of the United States as may be necessary for these purposes."—President William McKinley, 1898


What constitutional issue arose in the aftermath of the war?


 The citizenship rights of inhabitants of occupied lands

 U.S. authority to suppress insurrection movements in occupied territory

 U.S. authority to create and enforce a Cuban constitution

 The requirement of popular approval for annexing new territories


14.  How did economic pressure affect internal migration during World Wars I and II?


 Most people could not afford to move during those years, so home buying and moving was mostly stagnant.

 Wartime production needs created job opportunities, so many people moved to seek work in that industry.

 The need for workers in arms supply factories led to an easing of government restrictions on credit for home buying.

 People began to move into multi-generational households because so many of the primary earners went off to fight in war.


15.  Which statement explains how farmers contributed to their own problems in the late 19th century?


 A high level of productivity resulted in low crop prices that made farming less profitable.

 Over-planting reduced nutrients in the soil and led to smaller crop yields and poorer quality.

 Over-reliance on chemical fertilizers and pesticides resulted in short-term gains but reduced the productivity of farmland.

 Political divisions between farmers who grew food crops and farmers who grew cash crops reduced the political power of farmers.



16.   Question refers to the image below.



Illustration is a simple diagram of a radio reception device that could be made at home with simple tools and parts.


How did developments in media technology affect the African American community in the 1920s?


 Most of the first employees of radio factories and broadcast stations were African American.

 They undermined much of the attention to civil rights that African Americans were starting to gain.

 African American artists gained greater public attention for their varied forms of expression.

 Information about labor organization reached African Americans, who formed separate unions.


17.  Question refers to the image below.


Image showing antiwar protests near the Pentagon in Washington, D.C. The image shows a group of military officers with the letters MP on the sleeves of their uniforms and on their helmets. The military officers are standing in a single line in front of a group of young protestors. The protestors appear to be peaceful. One of the protestors is holding out a flower to the group of officers.

Public Domain


Members of the counterculture movement, pictured here on the left, were successful in doing which of the following?


 Weakening the Republican Party

 Turning public opinion against the Vietnam War

 Pressuring Congress into passing the Civil Rights Act

 Bringing an end to McCarthy's anti-Communist crusade


18.  Which of the following was not a key aspect of Wilson's Fourteen Points?

 Self-determination for all nations

 Freedom of the seas

 Surrender of colonies

 End to secret treaties


19.  Question refers to the excerpt below.


"I saw the sky in front of me light up brilliantly with all kinds of colors. At the same time I felt the taste of lead in my mouth. And where we had seen the city on the way in, I (now) saw nothing but a bunch of boiling debris with fire and smoke and all of that kind of stuff. It was devastating to take a look at it."—Colonel Paul W. Tibbets, Jr., pilot of the Enola Gay


How did observations such as those described in the excerpt lead to debate in American society?


 People started to question whether it was fair to expect members of the military to carry out orders without question.

 People started to question whether the use of airplanes in war is fair, reasonable, and financially responsible.

 People began to question whether government should have the power to use atomic weapons that would inevitably affect civilians.

 People began to question whether returning soldiers and their leaders should publicly speak about their experiences.


20.  Question refers to the excerpt below.


"And every Indian born within the territorial limits of the United States to whom allotments shall have been made under the provisions of this act, or under any law or treaty, and every Indian born within the territorial limits of the United States who has voluntarily taken up, within said limits, his residence separate and apart from any tribe of Indians therein, and has adopted the habits of civilized life, is hereby declared to be a citizen of the United States, and is entitled to all the rights, privileges, and immunities of such citizens, whether said Indian has been or not, by birth or otherwise, a member of any tribe of Indians within the territorial limits of the United States without in any manner affecting the right of any such Indian to tribal or other property."—From the Dawes Act, 1887



How did the policy described in this excerpt reflect the goals of the U.S. government in the late 1800s?


 Its purpose was to drive American Indians out of all the territory belonging to the United States.

 Its purpose was to end the pre-Civil War-era culture of discrimination against native peoples, as well as against those who migrated into the country under slavery.

 Its purpose was to open more lands in the West to white settlement, but migration caused increased conflict with American Indians.

 Its purpose was to set aside lands for native peoples to exercise sovereignty and continue their traditional ways of life without interference.


21.  Question refers to the excerpt below.


"We pursued another of our major objectives: that of seeking means to lessen tensions with the Soviets and ways to prevent war and keep the peace. Now, this policy is now paying dividends—one sign of this in Iceland was the progress on the issue of arms control. For the first time in a long while, Soviet-American negotiations in the area of arms reductions are moving, and moving in the right direction—not just toward arms control, but toward arms reduction. ... So, if there's one impression I carry away with me from these October talks, it is that, unlike the past, we're dealing now from a position of strength. And for that reason, we have it within our grasp to move speedily with the Soviets toward even more breakthroughs. ... So, there's reason, good reason for hope. I saw evidence of this is in the progress we made in the talks with Mr. Gorbachev."—Ronald Reagan, from his "Address to the Nation on the Meetings with Soviet General Secretary Gorbachev in Iceland," October 13, 1986


Which of the following Cold War approaches best describes the developments Reagan describes in this excerpt?


 Massive Retaliation

 Détente

 Containment

 Flexible Response




22.  Question refers to the excerpt below.


"I would be true to the principles for which my forefathers fought and true to the real spirit of the magnificent United States of to-day. I can not stultify [reduce] myself by voting for the present bill and overwhelm my country with racial hatreds and racial lines and antagonisms drawn even tighter than they are to-day."—Representative Robert H. Clancy, from his speech before Congress on April 8, 1924


Which of the following is true about Clancy's remarks in this excerpt?


 They reflected a highly popular and influential point of view at the time.

 They led to support for immigration reform, including ending restrictions.

 They were not the views of the majority, who supported immigration quotas.

 They helped raise awareness and protest against discrimination of all kinds.




23.  Question refers to the image below.


A political cartoon shows four well dressed men with large stomachs sitting on giant bags, which are on top of a large barge. The bags have dollar signs on them and are labelled, Fields Millions, Goulds Millions, and Vanderbilts Millions. The barge is constructed of large amounts of cloth, lumber, steel, linens, and other goods. There are signs around the barge that say, Linen Workers Average 11 dollars a Week, Cloth Workers Average 9 dollars a Week, Iron Workers Average 7 dollars a Week, and Lumber Workers Average 6 dollars a Week. The bottom front of the barge is supported by 10 men who are dressed in workers clothes and holding tools. They are bent over with the barge resting on their backs and shoulders.


How does this cartoon represent a shift in the American economy during the Gilded Age?

 It shows the substantial inequality that developed between the working class and business owners.

 It demonstrates how horizontal consolidation worked to increase wealth for business owners.

 It illustrates the disparity of treatment people of different races received in the business world.

 It reveals the attitudes of white American business owners toward international migrant workers.


24.  Question refers to the excerpt below.


"The world must be made safe for democracy. Its peace must be planted upon the tested foundations of political liberty. We have no selfish ends to serve. We desire no conquest, no dominion. We seek no indemnities for ourselves, no material compensation for the sacrifices we shall freely make. ... It is a fearful thing to lead this great peaceful people into war, into the most terrible and disastrous of all wars, civilization itself seeming to be in the balance. But the right is more precious than peace, and we shall fight for the things which we have always carried nearest our hearts,—for democracy, for the right of those who submit to authority to have a voice in their own Governments, for the rights and liberties of small nations, for a universal dominion of right by such a concert of free peoples as shall bring peace and safety to all nations and make the world itself at last free."—President Woodrow Wilson, 1917


Which result of the Spanish-American war is consistent with the war aims stated by Wilson?


 Annexation of Puerto Rico and Guam

 Granting of civil rights in the countries in which conflict took place

 Liberation of Cuba from Spain

 Continued American military presence in the Philippines




25.  Question refers to the image below.


A political cartoon shows President Roosevelt driving a car labeled Win the War. Roosevelt looks over at an old beaten donkey labeled New Deal. Three men are riding the donkey. Roosevelt is shown saying Turn her out to pasture, boys. We have got to get going. The men on the donkey are singing a song. The lyrics are, Oh, the old gray mare, she aint what she used to be.


Which describes why this cartoon about FDR's presidency in the 1940s would also be an accurate interpretation of Lyndon B. Johnson's domestic policy during his term as president in the 1960s?


 Johnson had pushed so much money toward internal improvements that he had no finances for international conflicts.

 Johnson placed less focus on Great Society initiatives and more focus on the conflict in Vietnam.

 Johnson eliminated spending on programs that served minorities in order to regain public favor.

 Johnson became so consumed with international power that he ignored legislative policies on the home front.


26.  Question refers to the excerpt below.


"[T]he terrorists are still active, and they are still trying to strike America and they are still trying to kill our people. ... Another reason the terrorists have not succeeded is because our government has changed its policies and given our military, intelligence and law enforcement personnel the tools they need to fight this enemy and protect our people and preserve our freedom. ... Captured terrorists have unique knowledge about how terrorist networks operate. They have knowledge of where their operatives are deployed and knowledge about what plots are under way. This intelligence—this is intelligence that cannot be found any other place. And our security depends on getting this kind of information. To win the war on terror, we must be able to detain, question and, when appropriate, prosecute terrorists captured here in America and on the battlefields around the world. ... [T]hese are enemy combatants who are waging war on our nation. We have a right under the laws of war, and we have an obligation to the American people, to detain these enemies and stop them from rejoining the battle."—George W. Bush, from his "Speech on Terrorism," September 6, 2006


How did the policies described in this excerpt generate debate within the United States?


 Many Americans grew concerned that their own civil liberties were being threatened or restricted.

 Few people agreed that prisoners of war should be allowed any type of trial or legal assistance.

 The War on Terror expanded the military budget and led to severe cuts in social welfare programs.

 No proof existed that the government's efforts had successfully thwarted any new terrorist attacks.





27.  Question refers to the image below.


A photograph shows a rocket launching off the ground. There is a large amount of fire coming out of its base. Several tower like structures are folded back away from the rocket.


How did the event shown in the photograph affect the Cold War arms race?


 It convinced military leaders in the United States to begin developing an anti-ballistic missile defense shield.

 It showed U.S. and Soviet leaders that conventional weapons were outdated, which led to a cut in defense spending in both nations.

 It showed both superpowers how dangerous atomic weapons were, prompting the signing of the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT).

 It led to educational funding in the United States and the drive to create an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM).






28.  Question refers to the image below.


Cartoon illustration shows three trenches lined with stones. Each trench has a tattered white flag raised above it with text on it. The closest flag reads, Not Negroes, while the middle reads, Not Women, and the most distant flag reads, Not Gays

"Not Negroes! Not Women! Not Gays!" by Herb Block, published in the Washington Post, January 28, 1993


How did the U.S. military become a target of public social debate in the 1990s?


 It ordered each branch to stop recruiting from certain segments of the population.

 It removed all recruitment restrictions leading to concerns about protecting families.

 It mandated stricter requirements for volunteers with certain characteristics.

 It instituted a policy in which soldiers were not to discuss their sexual orientation.




29.  Question refers to the excerpt below.


"So spoke an orator upon the platform; and two thousand pairs of eyes were fixed upon him, and two thousand voices were cheering his every sentence. The orator had been the head of the city's relief bureau in the stockyards, until the sight of misery and corruption had made him sick. He was young, hungry-looking, full of fire; and as he swung his long arms and beat up the crowd, to Jurgis he seemed the very spirit of the revolution. 'Organize! Organize! Organize!'—that was his cry."—Upton Sinclair, from The Jungle, 1906


What resulted from the public outcry related to The Jungle?


 Increased conservation efforts

 Backlash against labor unions

 Regulation of food quality

 Rejection of political machines


30.  What type of migration was most common in the United States in the 1950s?


 Movement from the Sun Belt to the Rust Belt

 Movement from rural areas to cities

 Movement from the South to the North

 Movement from cities to suburbs

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