Hi, I am in US History and got this question but I don't get it:
What do these sources tell us about the ways Native Americans, Europeans, and Africans thought about themselves, perceived one another, and capitalized on cross-cultural exchanges as they came into sustained contact?
I've included the page with the sources
4. Benin figurine of a Portuguese soldier from the 6. Sixteenth- or seventeenth-century Spanish silver seventeenth century. This brass figure would have real. Spain minted enormous quantities of Ameri- been kept on an altar or on the roof of the royal can silver; much of it was shipped to Manila, where palace of Benin. it was exchanged for Asian luxury goods. 275 INLy SVL To Source: ORMN-Grand PalaisArt Resource, NY. Sources: (2] John E. Worth, 'Account of the Northern Conquest and Discovery of Hernando de Soto by Rodrigo Rangel," trans. John E. Worth, in Lawrence A. Clayton et al, eds, The De Sale Chronkies: The Expedition of Hernando de Sato to North America Source: @ The Trustees of the British Museum/Art Resource, NY. in 1539-1513 (University of Alabama Press, 1993), 59; (3] Filippo Pigaletta, A Repart of the Kingdom of Conga, trans. Margarite Hutchinson (London: John Murray, 1851). 117-119. 5. Sixteenth-century Portuguese coin made from African gold. Before the discovery of the Americas, half of the Old World's gold came from sub- ANALYZING THE EVIDENCE Saharan Africa. 1. What can you infer about cultural values among Missis- sipplan peoples from source 1? About the cultural values of the Spanish and Portuguese from sources 5 and 6? What can't you infer from these objects? 2. How does de Soto describe the native peoples he encounters in Florida (source 2)? How does that com- pare to the traits of the African kingdoms that Lopez comments upon in source 3? Why might the king OFFIB of Sofala prefer a Portuguese alliance to subjection to Monomotapa? 3. What does source 4 suggest about Benin relations with the Portuguese PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER What do these sources tell us about the ways Native Ameri- cans, Europeans, and Africans thought about themselves, perceived one another, and capitalized on cross-cultural exchanges as they came into sustained contact? Write a short essay that considers the connection between the impulses of warfare and commerce, which appear again and again in contact settings. Source: O The Trustees of the British Museum/Art Resource, NY. 27
you-thinking like a historian-impart to them? 1. Mississippian warrior gorget (neck guard), A.D. does he miss what he shoots at. If the arrow does not find 1250-1350. armor, it penetrates as deeply as a crossbow. 'The bows are very long and the arrows are made of certain reeds like canes, very heavy and so tough that a sharpened cane passes through a shield. Some are pointed with a fish bone, as sharp as an awl, and others with a certain stone like a diamond point. 3. Duarte Lopez, A Report on the Kingdom of Kongo, 1591. A Portuguese explorer's account of his travels in southern Africa in the sixteenth century. IT The Kingdom of Sofala lies between the two rivers, Magnice and Cuama, on the sea-coast. It is small in size, and has but few villages and towns. . . . It is peopled by Mohammedans, and the king himself belongs to the same sect. He pays allegiance to the crown of Portugal, in order not to be subject to the government of Monomotapa Source: The National Museum of the American Indian George Gustav Heye [ Mutapa]. On this account the Portuguese have a fortress Center/New York, NY William F. Meyer Collection 15/153. at the mouth of the River Cuama, trading with those countries in gold, amber, and ivory, all found on that coast, as well as in slaves, and giving in exchange silk 2. Portuguese officer's account of de Soto's expedi- stuffs and taffetas. . . . It is said, that from these regions tion, 1557. This excerpt describes Indian resistance the gold was brought by sea which served for Solomon's in the face of de Soto's campaign of conquest Temple at Jerusalem, a fact by no means improbable, for against Indians in the southeastern United States. in these countries of Monomotapa are found several (Spanish soldiers] went over a swampy land where the ancient buildings of stone, brick, and wood, and of such horsemen could not go. A half league from camp they wonderful workmanship, and architecture, as is nowhere came upon some Indian huts near the river; [but ] the seen in the surrounding provinces. people who were inside them plunged into the river. They The Kingdom of Monomotapa is extensive, and has a captured four Indian women, and twenty Indians came at large population of Pagan heathens, who are black, of us and attacked us so stoutly that we had to retreat to the middle stature, swift of foot, and in battle fight with great camp, because of their being (as they are) so skillful with bravery, their weapons being bows and arrows, and light their weapons. Those people are so warlike and so quick darts. There are numerous kings tributary to Monomo- that they make no account of foot soldiers; for if these go tapa, who constantly rebel and wage war against it. The for them, they flee, and when their adversaries turn their Emperor maintains large armies, which in the provinces backs they are immediately on them. The farthest they are divided into legions, after the manner of the Romans, flee is the distance of an arrow shot. They are never quiet for, being a great ruler, he must be at constant warfare in but always running and crossing from one side to another order to maintain his dominion. Amongst his warriors, so that the crossbows or the arquebuses can not be aimed those most renowned for bravery, are the female legions. at them; and before a crossbowman can fire a shot, an greatly valued by the Emperor, being the sinews of his Indian can shoot three or four arrows, and very seldom military strength.
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