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The focus this week is on the post 9/11 world. Drawing from the Danopoulos, Kapor-Stanulovic,

and Skandalis (2012) article, describe one impact of war on children and the role of NGOs in mitigating those impacts. Use examples, either from the Yugoslav experience or from another conflict, to explore this topic and demonstrate your points. 

Starr, Harvey. Advances in Foreign Policy Analysis : Approaches, Levels, and Methods of Analysis in International Politics : Crossing Boundaries. New York, US: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006. ProQuest ebrary. Web. 16 May 2016. Copyright © 2006. Palgrave Macmillan. All rights reserved.
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Starr, Harvey. Advances in Foreign Policy Analysis : Approaches, Levels, and Methods of Analysis in International Politics : Crossing Boundaries. New York, US: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006. ProQuest ebrary. Web. 16 May 2016. Copyright © 2006. Palgrave Macmillan. All rights reserved.
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Children and Armed Confict: The Yugoslav Experience Constantine P. Danopoulos, Nila Kapor-Stanulovic and Konstantinos S. Skandalis Using the Yugoslav experience, this paper seeks to analyse and understand the plight of children in war and its aftermath. It also seeks to evaluate and assess the role and effectiveness of NGOs and other aid-providing entities. Data used include personal observations, relevant documents, as well as Frst-hand accounts. The main conclusion reached in this study is that due to vulnerabilities associated with age, children in armed con±ict suffer more than any other social group. The post-war or long-term consequences are often more severe than the difFculties children face during war. The role of NGOs is more helpful during war but less effective when the guns go silent. Inter- and intra-national wars leave a plethora of traumatic and long-lasting social, economic, physical and psychological consequences on all citizens as well as those of neighbouring societies. Conquerors and vanquished, winners and losers, and even those who stand on the sidelines are affected negatively by war and its aftermath—some more than others. The physical scars of combat and damage to infrastructure can be erased with the passage of time, but the psychological, mental and social wounds are much harder to heal. A group of Korean women (the so-called comfort women) ‘recruited’ to serve the sexual pleasures of Japanese soldiers during the Second World War, for example, still suffer from the traumatic experience. Three decades have not been sufFcient in healing the psychological scars of the Vietnam War veterans in the USA. ±urther, the amputated arms of the children in the Sierra Leone civil war are a permanent feature in their daily routine and an indelible scar in their psyche. While no segment of society or social group escapes the trauma of war and its aftermath, no group is more vulnerable and more severely affected than children. Broken families, bodily damage, loss of parents and siblings, missed educational opportunities, malnutrition, and psychological and mental wounds are some of the more devastating and long-lasting consequences fratricidal and other con²icts bequeath on children. The 2001 UN report, entitled We the Children , is revealing: War affects every aspect of children’s development: Malnutrition increases because of low production of food and displacement; resources for special ISSN 1944-8953 (print)/ISSN 1944-8961 (online)/12/010151-13 q 2012 Taylor & ±rancis http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19448953.2012.656977 Journal of Balkan and Near Eastern Studies Vol. 14, No. 1, March 2012, pp. 151–163
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services are diverted into war efforts; as health services deteriorate, infant and child mortality rates rise; the destruction of schools reduces access to education; and displacement separates families and deprives children of a secure environment. 1 To these immediate problems one must add long-term consequences, which continue after the guns are silent and the fog of war dissipates. The same UNICEF document points to scienti±c evidence that reveals ‘how critically important the early years are to the quality of children’s later lives, spanning the personal, social and economic spheres’. 2 The report further states that ‘children are most severely affected by deprivation, and war related hardships’, which strike ‘at the very root of their potential for development—their growing minds and bodies’. 3 In clear and unmistakable language, it underscores the immediate and long-term developmental, psychological, social and other problems associated with war and its aftermath, stating: ‘if a child’s cycle of growth and development is interrupted, this often becomes a life long handicap’. 4 The violent dismemberment of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) and the economic sanctions imposed by the international community had a devastating impact on every level of society. Damage to infrastructure amounted to billions of dollars, productivity was reduced drastically and people’s purchasing power saw a dramatic decline. Between 1993 and 1999, well over half of the population became unemployed, displaced or impoverished, and over 1 million people became refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs); 5 more than a quarter of them were children. Even though an uneasy peace reins over the former Yugoslavia, the impact of war on children lingers. While some improvement can be seen in most republics (now independent countries) that comprised the FRY, the situation remains critical in two that decided to remain in a federal but ever weakening relationship: Serbia and Montenegro. The 1999 Kosovo war affected these two republics and is partially responsible for the dismal condition children still face today. It left behind additional physical, economic, psychological and other damage, and generated thousands more IDPs, including thousands of children. Furthermore, it hindered economic recovery, encouraged a burgeoning black grey economy and a black market, and restricted access to essential humanitarian relief. The deleterious consequences the Yugoslav wars brought on children continue long after formal warfare has come to end. This paper concentrates on the impact of war and its aftermath on Yugoslav children. The paper is organized as follows. It begins with a few background remarks designed to familiarize the reader with the complexities of Yugoslavian society and the country’s violent disintegration. The main section follows and addresses the immediate and long-term impact of war on Yugoslav children. It provides data illustrating the number of children affected, the pro±le of those affected, the kinds of problems and deprivations the children faced during the war and after, as well as the lingering physical, psychological, behavioural and social problems that confront them. The section also compares the plight of children housed in refugee camps versus those who live in home environments. The concluding section discusses how continuing 152 C. P. Danopoulos et al.
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"NEW RULES FOR NEW WARS" INTERNATIONAL LAW AND JUST WAR DOCTRINE FOR IRREGULAR WAR George R. Lucas, Jr. This article traces the increasing pressures exerted upon interna- tional law and international institutions from two sources: the humanitarian military interventions (and failures to intervene) in the aftermath of the Cold War during the decade of the 1990s; and the "global war on terror" and wars of counterinsurgency and regime change fought during the first decade of the 2r' century. Proposals for legal and institutional reform in response to these challenges emerge from two distinct and largely indepen- dent sources: a "publicist" or theoretical discussion among scholars in philosophy, law, and international relations; and a formal or procedural discussion among diplomats and statesmen, both focusing upon what the latter group defines as a "responsibility to protect" (R2P). This study con- cludes with recommendations for reform of international humanitarian law (or Law of Armed Conflict), and for reformulations of professional ethics and professional military education in allied militaries, both of which will be required to fully address the new challenges of "irregular" or hybrid war. I. INTRODUCTION 677 II. FIN DE SIÈCLE: A RETROSPECTIVE RECENT HISTORY OF JUST WAR. ..679 III. THE RISE OF THE GLOBAL WAR ON TERROR (GWOT) 686 IV. THE NEW RULES FOR NEW WARS 689 V. FROM Jus AD PACEMTO Jus IN PACE 695 VI. FROM Jus IN PACE TO Jus POST BELLUM: HOW LONG TO STAY AND WHEN TO "Go HOME" 700 APPENDIX 702 I. INTRODUCTION The new era of "irregular warfare" (IW) is thought to consist pri- marily of the substantial changes and challenges in military tactics and mili- Professor of Ethics and Public Policy, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, Califor- nia and Class of 1984 Distinguished Chair of Ethics, United States Naval Academy, Annapo- lis, Maryland. 677
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678 CASE W. RES. J. INT'L L. [Vol. 43:677 tary technology—the so-called "revolution in military affairs" (RMA).' On the one hand, asymmefric warfare, including a variety of types of terrorist attacks involving mdimentary technology, has largely replaced the massive confrontations between opposing uniformed combat troops employing high- tech and heavy-platform weaponry that previously characterized conven- tional war.^ On the other, new kinds of "emerging technologies," including military robotics and unmanned weapons platforms, non-lethal weapons, and cyber-attacks, ever-increasingly constitute the tactical countermeasures adopted by established nations in response.' The era of irregular or unconventional war also, however, requires another revolution—a cultural sea-change that has been much harder to identify, and much slower in coming. This radical cultural shift entails re- conceptualizing the nature and purpose of war-fighting, and of the war- fighter. This relatively neglected dimension of RMA requires new thinking about the role of military force in intemational relations, as well as about how nations raise, equip, train, and, most especially, about the ends for which these nations ultimately deploy their military forces. The new era of IW requires that military personnel develop a radically altered vision of their own roles as warriors and peacekeepers, as well as appropriate recog- nition of the new demands IW imposes upon the requisite expertise, know- ledge, and limits of acceptable conduct for members of the profession of arms. Finally, the new era of IW requires that those institutions and person- nel who educate and train future warriors be much more effective in helping them understand and come to terms with their new identity, the new roles they will be expected to play in the intemational arena, and the new canons of professional conduct appropriate to those roles. This essay traces two parallel and independent discussions of the nature of this cultural fransformation. The first, which I have attempted to document over the past two decades, consists in the discussion among phi- losophers, ethicists, political theorists, and intemational relations scholars conceming the evolution of "just war" doctrine." These discussions exhibit ' See Prologue to ROBBIN F. LAIRD & HOLGER H. MEY, THE REVOLUTION IN MILITARY AFFAIRS: ALLIED PERSPECTIVES 1 (1999). ^ See id ' See id "* See George R. Lucas, Jr., The Reluctant Interventionist: The Critique of Realism and the Resurgence of Morality in Foreign Policy in GEORGE R. LUCAS, JR., PERSPECTIVES ON HUMANITARIAN MILITARY INTERVENTION (Univ. of Califomia Institute of Governmental Studies/Public Policy Press 2001); George R. Lucas, Jr., The Role of the International Com- munity in the Just War Tradition: Confronting the Challenges of Humanitarian Intervention and Preemptive War, 2 JOURNAL OF MILITARY ETHICS 122-144 (2003); George R. Lucas, Jr., From Jus ad bellum to Jus ad pacem: Rethinking Just War Criteria for the Use of Military Force for Humanitarian Ends , 72-96 in ETHICS AND FOREIGN INTERVENTION, Eds. Donald Scheid and Deen K. Chatterjee (New York: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2004); George R. Lucas,
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Running Head: IMPACT OF WAR ON CHILDREN Impact of War on Children Student’s Name
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Professor’s Name Date Surname 1 IMPACT OF WAR ON CHILDREN Surname 2 Impact of war on children
War had a...

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