1. Ten years after the Civil War, and during the next decades, most...

1. Ten years after the Civil War, and during the next decades, most freed southern blacks

a. were able to defeat the KKK and achieve economic and political equality with whites

b. emigrated to the North and the West to escape the oppression and poverty of the south

c. abandoned farming and instead became workers in southern factories

d. were trapped in a system that was basically the same as slavery

2. Even though the 15th Amendment to the Constitution specifically gave freed black the vote

a. KKK intimidation discouraged blacks voting    b. super-hard tests prevented blacks voting

c. ‘grandfather clauses’ prevented blacks voting    d. poll-taxes, or paying to vote prevented blacks votinge. all of the above

3. Even IF technically ‘free’ after the US Civil War, which of these was NOT a factor which  helped make it almost impossible for Black people in the South to escape a situation which was almost the same thing as slavery?

a.  Blacks usually had no education--it had been illegal to even teach them to read before the Civil War

b.  Blacks had no money to buy land to become farmers    c. farming was the only thing most freed Blacks knew

d.  Blacks trying to leave the South faced hostility and discrimation in the North

e.  Blacks were forced to serve in the US Army to fight Native Americans

What was probably one of the biggest reasons the South didn’t allow many of its 4 million Blacks to leave after it lost the Civil War?

a.  because keeping them against their will would have been illegal    b. because cheap labor was vital to its economy

c. because there was a strong desire to compensate Blacks for the injustices of slavery

d. incorrect--a majority of Blacks did leave the South after 1865

Until 1920, for decades the number 1 export of the USA ($192 million in 1860) was:

a. cotton   b. lumber  c. oil (petroleum)   d. automobiles    e. iron ore

Until 1914 (World War One), the World’s dominant nation, militarily and financially was:

a. the USA   b. the UK   c. Russia    d. Germany   e. France

Until 1850, the economy of the USA can best be described as

a. leading  industrialized, advanced   b. mostly farming    c, mostly service and retail    d. mostly mining (gold, coal)

The US economy changed amazingly by 1900 in part because of

a. government regulation and hard-working people       b. British capital, investment, and industrial espionage (stealing tech)

c. government investment in education and low income taxes    d. free trade and high income taxes

3. Ironically, US politicians who said it was not the government’s job to help people

a. changed their minds and offered free college education to the sons of Civil War veterans

b. gave millions of dollars and millions of acres of land to the railroads

c. helped the freed slaves in the South by giving federal lands to black homesteaders for free

d. helped the Indian tribes of the Plains fight against invading railroads and miners

4. Ironically, federal laws originally designed to protect the rights of blacks were used to

a. protect the civil rights of Chinese immigrantsb. protect the rights of poor white european immigrants

c. protect the rights of railroad corporationsd. protect the rights of the Plains Indians

5. Ironically, the Sherman Anti-Trust Act of 1890, originally designed to stop giant corporations

a. was used to break up the White League and other KKK-type organizations in the South

b. was used to break up labor unions

c. was used to break up Indian tribes in the Midwest and Northern Plains

d. was too late, because most of the mergers had already taken place

6. In 1883, standard time zones (Eastern, Central, Mountain, & Pacific) were created by the

a. US Army to help fight indiansb. the Federal Government in Washington D.C.

c. Rockefeller’s giant oil company, Standard Oil    d. railroad corporations

7. “This is a government of the people, by the people and for the people no longer. It is a government of corporations, by corporations, and for corporations”  Who said it?

a. President of the USA Rutherford Hayesb. Chairman of Standard Oil, Rockefeller

c. James Pierpont Morgan  d. Leland Stanford

8. Which of the following was NOT a result of mass production techniques?

a. greater job security   b. replace skilled workers   c. lower unit costs

d. increased speed in production

9. Two big factors that caused workers and unions to have a tough time making progress were

a. corrupt politicians and heavy competition from other countries

b. the high US tariff that kept company profits high and the closing of the frontier

c. the decreasing percentage of Americans working on farms and the rise of cotton and white prices

d. the continuing flood of new, desperate immigrants and periodic economic depressions

10. Why did many poor factory workers vote Republican in 1896—the same as their billionaire bosses?

a. they wanted strict government control of the corporationsb. they were tricked by their unions

c. they wanted to keep a high tariff on foreign goodsd. they opposed immigration

11. According to the ‘Social Darwinism’ idea of this time, if you were poor…

a. then the government had the responsibility of making sure that at least, you would not starve

b. it was because the Indians, the blacks, or slavic immigrants were taking your job

c. it was your own fault because you were inferior

d. education and government help could help you rise

1. In 1492 when Columbus came to America, there were perhaps 10 million or more natives in North America;

by 1900 only 300,000 to 500,000 natives alive

True   False

2. When Ishi, the last of the Yahi tribe, appeared in California in 1911, Indians had become so rare that

he was exhibited like a circus freak

True  False

3. What was NOT a reason given for the US creating an empire in the late 1800s early 1900s?

a. thanks to huge factories, zero taxes, zero pollution control, and continental resources American industry had developed gigantic

  productive capacity that pushed it to sell all over the world

b. the US faced serious military threats from the Pacific and Carribean

c. other countries were rushing to take over Third World markets and the US did not want to be left behind

d. places like Samoa, Hawaii, the Philippines, and Cuba produced things that the US could not

e. weak, less ‘advanced’ countries could benefit from America’s protection and guidance

4. Who said "speak softly and carry a big stick?"

a. Wilson   b. McKinleyc. Lincolnd. Roosevelte. Taft

5. In which of these countries did the US NOT interfere or send troops during the late 1800s and early 1900s?

a. Haiti   b. Nicaragua   c. Brazil d. Mexico   e. Hawaii

6. All the following motivated US policy from 1898 to 1917 EXCEPT a

a. desire for true goodwill and friendship among nations

b. desire to protect US investments   c. need for markets for American goods

d. belief in the superiority of the Anglo-Saxon ‘race’

e. desire to strengthen the US navy

7. The ‘Yellow Press’ or ‘Yellow Journalism’

a. featured articles about China or Asia    b. was rejected by the biggest newspapers

c. featured shocking, sensational stories to appeal to a mass audience

d. focused American attention away from foreign affairs

e. refers to the use of cheap paper that changed in color

8. Having defeated the ‘brutal’ Spanish empire in Cuba and the Philippines, the US gave the Filipino people independence

a. True    b. False

9. When Colombia asked for more money and control over the canal between the Pacific and the Atlantic, the US

a. built the canal in Nicaragua instead   b. agreed to the Colombian proposal   c. invaded Colombia

d. bribed some Colombians to revolte. negotiated a compromise

10. When Nicaragua began negotiating with Europe to build a second canal the US

a. paid that country $20 to turn down Nicaragua   b. assassinated the President of Nicaragua

c. encouraged the negotiations, because competition is good

d. sent the US Marines to overthrow the government of Nicaragua

11. Which of these is NOT true about US relations with Mexico in the 1900 period?

a. US citizens owned huge amounts of property in Mexico

b. the US attacked and took over a major Mexican city for not saluting the US flag

c. the US ambassador Wilson conspired to overthrow the President of Mexico

d. the US demanded that Mexico spend money to build a canal  


1. What were Progressives, what were they mostly concerned with?

a. reducing the size and the amount of control the government had over people

b. increase the speed of innovation and generally applying more science

c. boosting the efficiency of production by reducing waste in factories

d. restraining the abuses and excesses of Gilded Age society

2. How did the Progressives first start having success?

a. McKinley’s assassination opened people’s eyes to political corruption

b. ordinary people like Jane Addams showed it was possible to reform society

c. Theodore Roosevelt was elected president and changed the political scene

d.  The Democratic and Republican parties ‘cleaned up’, firing corrupt members

3. Progressives were against giving the federal government power over social and economic affairs

a. True          B. False

4. Who were the ‘Muckrakers’?

a. anarchists who tried to overthrow the government   b. writers who exposed social-economic problems

c. the large numbers of poor people living in filth    d. an insulting term applied to immigrants

5. How was Roosevelt’s handling of the coal strike of 1902 different from what others presidents did?

a. the baseball bats used to hit the strikers in 1902 were made of thicker, better quality wood

b. he used the Sherman Anti-Trust Act to end the strike

c. he pretended to listen to and sympathize with the unions but really sided with the coal companies

d. he tried to get both sides to talk, but when the companies refused, he threatened them

6. Which of these is NOT one of Theodore Roosevelt’s achievements as president?

a. he passed an amendment allowing women to vote in federal elections

b. he created the first large system of National Parks to preserve nature

c. he took action against the corporate ‘Trusts’, including JP Morgan’s

d. he signed a law to ensure that food would be safe and pure

7. President Taft—Theodore Roosevelt’s hand-picked successor—

a. continued to apply Roosevelt’s Progressive ideas

b. at first continued with Roosevelt’s Progressive ideas, but then became even more extreme

c. paid little attention to domestic affairs and concentrated on the First World War

d. took some Progressive measures, but was mainly an old-style conservative Republican


1. Why did oil and internal combustion engines become so important so quickly after 1900?

a. because coal supplies internationally were starting to run out and become more expensive

b. because internal combustion engines are simpler to make than steam engines

c. because pound for pound oil has more energy than coal

d. because fatalities and accidents in coal mines were causing strikes

2. How did the emergence of oil change international strategy?

a. it made countries like Germany and Great Britain even more powerful

b. it meant that Great Britain’s economic and military power was gone

c. it meant that Russia and the United States were now the most powerful nations

d. it meant that control of oil was connected to maintaining or getting global power

3. Which of these is NOT a reason that explains World War I?

a. Germany launched the war in order to take over Europe

b. France wanted to recover the land it had lost to Germany in 1870

c. England was afraid of Germany’s growing economic and military power

d. Widespread ideas of Nationalism, Racism, and ‘survival of the fittest’

4. What made World War I so terrible, bloody, and long?

a. more food, medical technology, etc. had massively increased the size of european armies

b. new weapons: machine-guns, high-explosives, submarines, poison gas, military aircraft, etc.

c. weapons had changed greatly, but not the thinking of generals

d. many countries were tied together in alliances, so if one went to war, they all had to

e. all of these

5. World War I is often called the first ‘Total War’ because

a. the American people totally supported US involvement in the war

b. every nation on the entire planet took part in it

c. participating nations were totally focused on winning and no holds were barred

d. the winning nations achieved the total of their objectives

6. Which of these is NOT a reason why the USA joined the war against Germany in 1917?

a. Because the Allies were (supposedly) more democratic than the other side

b. Because the Germans were sinking ships and killing US citizens

c. Because US banks had lent billions of dollars to the Allies

d. Because Germany had tried to bribe Mexico to attack the USA

e. Because Germany was a military threat to the USA

7. Which of these was NOT part of the Treaty of Versailles that ended World War I?

a. some peoples (Poles, Czechs, etc) were able to vote and make their own countries

b. Germany was forced to admit it had caused the war and pay a huge fine

c. a ‘League of Nations’, the ancestor of the United Nations, was created

d. free trade between world countries was established

8. Among the political changes World War helped bring in the US was

a. a constitutional amendment granting women the right to vote

b. a law granting labor unions the right to strike.

c. a constitutional amendment guaranteeing African-Americans the right to travel freely.

d. a constitutional amendment prohibiting child labor.

9. Which of these is NOT something President Woodrow Wilson did?

a. passed the Federal Reserve Act, surrendering a big part of US financial policy to private banks

b. created and passed laws ensuring civil rights for Black Americans

c.  ran for reelection bragging about keeping the US out of war, but then got the US into war

d. his stubborness after WWI meant the US did not join the League of Nations

10. Perhaps the biggest result, the most important international change caused by WWI was

a. the transfer of global economic and military dominance from England to the USA

b. the take-over of Europe and China by Marxist-Leninist communism

c. the great recognition black americans received for their wartime contributions

d. the rise of pacifistic organizations that would prevent future world war

11 . Which of these was NOT a result of World War One?

a. it probably killed more people than all prior wars of history combined (37M ?+ flu pandemic 50M)

b. because it did not solve some basic issues and created new ones, it caused World War Two

c. it finally made the USA into the dominant financial, industrial, and military power

d. the wealth it caused in the USA reduced worker and racial unrest

e. it helped create the Soviet Union


1. After getting a huge chunk of the world’s gold in WW I, the US passed the

         Fordney-McCumber Act, which

   a. made the US an official member of the league of nations b. put a stop to all immigration

   c. outlawed the communists and KKK d. put heavy taxes on foreign goods

2. New technologies that changed society and grew the economy during WWI and the 1920s were:

a. airplanes, submarines, electronic computers, and televisionb. radio, automobiles, electricity

c. radio, automobiles, electronic computers, trains, steamships

d. radio, automobiles, trains, airplanes, steamships

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