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Study Guide - Chapter 13

People, Places, and


Martin Luther                        John Calvin                  Council of Trent

Indulgence                  Puritans                       Purgatory

Henry VIII                   Charles V (Holy Roman Emperor)

Anglicans                     William of Orange        Elizabeth I

Protestant                    Philip II of Spain          Henry IV of France

Ignatius Loyola            Spanish Armada          Thirty Years' War

Society of Jesus           St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

English Civil War          Edict of Nantes            Huguenots

Oliver Cromwell           Martin Luther's 95 Theses

1)    List the key principles that distinguish Protestantism from Catholicism and explain how Luther arrived at each of them.

·      Protestants don't follow the pope.

·      In the Catholic Church, celibacy is obligatory for priests. The Protestant Church rejects this obligation for priests. Martin Luther already demanded its abolition as early as 1520

·      Catholics follow more than one book. Protestants solely follow the bible.

2)    What were the different kinds of Protestants that emerged from the Reformation? How did they differ from each other, both theologically and politically?

·      Anabaptist - part of the Radical Reformation of 16th-century Europe. Many consider Anabaptism to be a distinct movement from Protestantism. Amish, Hutterites, and Mennonites are descendants of the movement.

·      Anglicanism - churches with historical connections to the Church of England

·      Calvinism - a Protestant theological system based in large part on the teachings of John Calvin, a reformer.

·      Counter-Reformation - a period of Catholic revival in response to the Protestant reformation

·      Dissenters - in this context, one who has separated from the Established Church

·      Nonconformism - the practice of refusing to adhere to the practices of the Church of England.

·      Lutheranism - a major branch of the reformation, adhering to the theology of Martin Luther

·      Polish Brethren - the Minor Reformed Church of Poland, a non-Trinitarian church (1565 - 1658)

·      Remonstrants - Dutch Protestants adhering to the views of Arminius, in opposition to Calvinism

·      Presbyterianism - a denomination adhering to Calvinist views, with governance by elders (presbyters)

·      Evangelicalism - a Protestant Christian movement which began in the 17th century, but grew much more prominent in the 18th & 19th centuries during the Great Awakenings; it emphasizes individual piety

·      Liberalism - the belief in liberty and equality. In religion, emphasizes theological diversity over creed or authority.

·      Fundamentalism - originally meant a specific set of theological beliefs; has come to mean unwavering devotion to a specific set of fundamental beliefs.

·      Pentecostalism - a movement within Christianity putting emphasis on the direct experience of God in the form of the Holy Spirit.

3)    What parts of the Reformation in England were religious? What parts were political?


4)    Did the challenge of the Protestant Reformation strengthen or weaken the papacy?

·      It weakened it because, it challenged the pope and made people split between Catholicism and Protestantism.

5) How did the religious wars of the 16th century consolidate government authority in a) Spain b) France c) Germany and d) England?


6) How did the Catholic Church abuse the principle of indulgences? What were they originally for?

·      They freely sold them to everyone and told them that they NEEDED to buy them for their deceased family members.

7) What was Martin Luther's reaction to "hard sell" tactics of the indulgence sellers?

·      He thought it was immoral and an abuse of the churches power.

8) Why didn't the pope have Luther killed?

·     Luther had made friends with powerful people, so he was untouchable.

9) Why did German nobles adopt Luther's new attitude about religion?

·     Powerful supporters such as princes and free cities accepted Lutheranism for many reasons, some because they sincerely supported reform, others out of narrow self-interest. In some areas, a jurisdiction would adopt Lutheranism because a large neighboring state had done so. In other areas, rulers accepted it because they sought to retain control over their subjects who had embraced it earlier. Nearly all the imperial cities became Lutheran, despite the fact that the emperor, to whom they were subordinate, was hostile to the movement.

10) How did Martin Luther occupy his time while hiding out from the Church?


11) What was the problem with Luther's doctrine of "every person must follow his conscience"?


12) What did peasants want to get out of their Revolt in 1524?


13) Why did Luther back away from supporting Muntzer's more radical attitude about Protestantism?


14) What did Luther see as the answer to the disorders created by religious revolt?


15) What tactics did the popes of the Renaissance often use to re-build their power?


16) When did the Catholic Church finally start reforming itself, and how? What were some of the means adopted at the Council of Trent, to defend the Church's power?

17) Why was Henry VIII so frantic to have a legitimate son?

·     He thought that England wouldn't accept a female heir. He feared a civil war would come of this.

18)Trace the course of the Reformation in England, from Henry VIII to Elizabeth I.

19) How did Elizabeth deal with religious divisions in England, and religious threats from France and Spain?

20) What did Philip II hope to accomplish in the Netherlands? What did he accomplish?

·     He wanted to purge them of Protestants. They resisted Spaniard domination.

21) What did Philip II do with most of the gold from the Americas?

·     Used it to take over more of the world.

22) What did Catherine de Medici seek to accomplish with the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre? What did she accomplish?

23) What was the problem with Henry of Navarre when he tried to become King of France? How did he solve this?

·     There was a large massacre. He converted to Catholicism to please the masses.

24) What power did Parliament hold over the English King? How did James I get around this? Why did he want to cut Parliament out of the government?

25) What events touched off the Civil War in England? What was the result of the Civil War?

27) What was the ultimate outcome of religious wars in England?

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