. "The anatomists Leonardo da Vinci and William Hunter agreed that
the accurate representation of forms could be viewed as a 'universal language' of the eye which transcended the confusion of tongues and verbal categories." Discuss this claim with respect to medieval and/or early modern medical and anatomical images.
2. When is idealization compatible with scientific realism?
3. "Patients did not really become more active in drug testing in the course of the twentieth century; historians and sociologists just started giving them more attention." Assess this claim.
4. How has scientific knowledge travelled from place to place? Discuss in relation to commerce and empire
5. Is explanatory power truth-conducive?
6. Following either Kuhn's or Popper's view, is it possible to maintain that scientific progress is cumulative?
7. How does Foucault's concept of "a new technology of power whose essential elements were the disciplines" affect our view of the history of the sciences?
8. In what ways, if at all, did Darwin's Descent of Man (1871) attempt to intervene in contemporary public debates about race and gender?
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