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4131 PM Wed Dec'l 6. Russia is an European State. I 7. This is clearly demonstrated by the following Observations: The Alterations which Peter the Great undertook in Russia succeeded with the greater Ease, because the Manners, which prevailed at that Time, and had been introduced amongst us by a Mixture of different Nations, and the Conquest of foreign Territories, were quite unsuitable to the Climate. Peter the First, by introducing the Manners and Customs of Europe among the European People in his Dominions, found at that Time such Means as even he himself was not sanguine enough to expect... I 9. The Sovereign is absolute; for there is no other Authority but that which centers in his single Person, that can act with a Vigour proportionate to the Extent of such a vast Dominion. I 10. The Extent of the Dominion requires an absolute Power to be vested in that Person who rules over it. It is expedient so to be, that the quick Dispatch of Affairs, sent from distant Parts, might make ample Amends for the Delay occasioned by the great Distance of the Places. I 11. Every other Form of Government whatsoever would not only have been prejudicial to Russia, but would even have proved its entire Ruin. I 12. Another Reason is: That it is better to be subject to the Laws under one Master, than to be subservient to many. I 13. What is the true End of Monarchy? Not to deprive People of their natural Liberty; but to correct their Actions, in order to attain the supreme Good. I 14. The Form of Government, therefore, which best attains this End, and at the same Time sets less Bounds than others to natural Liberty, is that which coincides with the Views and Purposes of rational Creatures, and answers the End, upon which we ought to fix a steadfast Eye in the Regulations of civil Polity. I 15. The Intention and the End of Monarchy, is the Glory of the Citizens, of the State, and of the Sovereign. I 16. But, from this Glory, a Sense of Liberty arises in a People governed by a Monarch; which may produce in these States as much Energy in transacting the most important Affairs, and may contribute as much to the Happiness of the Subjects, as even leerty Itself.... I 33. The Laws ought to be so framed, as to secure the Safety of every Citizen as much as possible. I 34. The Equality of the Citizens consists in this; that they should all be subject to the same Laws. I 35. This Equality requires Institutions so well adapted, as to prevent the Rich from oppressing those who are so wealthy as themW Employments entrusted to them as Magistrates

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4:31 PM Wed Dec'l I 34. The Equality of the Citizens consists in this; that they should all be subject to the same Laws. - 35. Thls Equallty requlres lnstltutlons so well adapted, as to prevent the Rich from oppresslng those who are not so wealthy as themselves, and converting all the Charges and Employments entrusted to them as Magistrates only, to their own private Emolument.... Analyze the Evidence I 37. In a State or Assemblage of People that live together in a Community, where there are Laws, Liberty can only consist in doing that which every One ought to do, and not to be constrained to do that which One ought not to do. 38. A Man ought to form in his own Mind an exact and clear Idea of what Liberty is. Liberty is the Right of doing whatsoever the Laws allow: And if any one Citizen could do what the Laws forbid, there would be no more Liberty; because others would have an equal Power of doing the same. - 39. The political Liberty of a Citizen is the Peace of Mind arising from the Consciousness, that every Individual enjoys his peculiar Safety; and in order that the People might attain this Liberty, the Laws ought to be so framed, that no one Citizen should stand in Fear of another; but that all of them should stand in Fear of the same Laws.... 180. That Law, therefore, is highly beneficial to the Community where it is established, which ordains that every Man shall be judged by his Peers and Equals. For when the Fate of a Citizen is in Question, all Prejudices arising from the Difference of Rank or Fortune should be stifled; because they ought to have no Influence between the Judges and the Parties accused. - 194. (1.) No Man ought to be looked upon as guilty, before he has received his judicial Sentence; nor can the Laws deprive him of their Protection, before it is proved that he has forfeited all Right to it. What Right therefore can Power give to any to inflict Punishment upon a Citizen at a Time, when it is yet dubious, whether he is Innocent or guilty? - 250. A Society of Citizens, as well as everything else, requires a certain fixed Order: There ought to be some to govern, and others to obey. - 251. And this is the Origin of every Kind of Subjection; which feels itself more or less alleviated, in Proportion to the Situation of the Subjects. - 252. And, consequently, as the Law of Nature commands Us to take as much Care, as lies in Our Power, of the Prosperity of all the People; we are obliged to alleviate the Situation of the Subjects, as much as sound Reason will permit. - 253. And therefore, to shun all Occasions of reducing People to a State of Slavery, except the utmost Necessity should inevitably oblige us to do it; in that Case, it ought not to be done for our own Benefit; but for the Interest of the State: Yet even that Case is extremely uncommon. - 254. Of whatever Kind Subjection may be, the civil Laws ought to guard, on the one Hand, against the Abuse of Slavery, and, on the other, against the Dangers which may arise from it.

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5:32 PM Wed Dec 1 AA AA i T B X nd Background Source Catherine the Great reigned in Russia in 1762-1796. Catherine came to the throne in 1762, as the result of a coup d'etat against Analyze the Evidence her estranged and erratic husband, Peter Ill. While she was distantly related to the pre-Romanov Rurik dynasty of Russia, she was nevertheless a German princess. Since Peter the Great's time, Russia was mostly ruled by several women - his wife Catherine I, his niece Anna, and finally his younger daughter Elizabeth, who reigned 1740-1762. The Empress Elizabeth personally selected Catherine for her nephew and heir Peter III.. While Elizabeth had done an effective job of expanding her empire, continuing her father's project of westernizing the Russian elite, and balancing the interests of the foreign German and native Russian advisors at her lavish court, her nephew Peter was wholly Russian and surrounded himself with a German rather than Russian court, which gained him many enemies. His German wife Catherine, however, understood from the beginning how important it was for her to appear "Russian" in all respects, finding many allies among the Russian nobility and military and converting to the Orthodox religion. When Elizabeth died in 1762, Peter Ill began his reign, soon proving that he lacked the skills to be the ruler of one of the largest empires in Europe. Six months into his reign, Catherine decisively took command of a coup d'etat and deposed her husband. Peter was shortly after assassinated, though it is unclear whether Catherine knew of this in advance. Catherine continued to rule even after her son Paul came of age, judging that he would make a poor ruler like his father. She actually prevented Paul from coming to court until her death in 1796, so that no faction could develop around him. X

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5132 PM Wed Dec1 Analyze the Evidence '5' 9% Like her aunt-in-Iaw, Catherine was determined to continue the westernization projects put in motion by Peter the Great and was devoted to building the Russian military. Unlike Elizabeth, however, Catherine was well educated and from a young age was familiar with the literature of the major philosophes of the French Enlightenment. In fact, during the first 16 years of her reign, she corresponded regularly with French writer and one of the leaders of the Enlightenment, Voltaire, until his death. Catherine was particularly impressed with Voltaire's ideas about "enlightened despotism." Enlightened despots were absolute monarchs who pursed legal and social reforms inspired by the Enlightenment. They typically instituted administrative reform, religious toleration, and economic development but did not propose liberal reforms that would undermine their sovereignty or disrupt the social order. Voltaire was not a great advocate for self-rule but he believe that all men should be treated equality before the law In the spirit of enlightened despotism, in 1767, Catherine called for a Legislative Commission organized to develop a new la ' code to replace the Law Code of 1649. On the first day of the commission, she provided members with her "Instructions" (k ./ — a philosophical and legamW views on the subject. She had been working on the

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5132 PM Wed Dec'l Analyze the Evidence '5' 9% In the spirit of enlightened despotism, in 1767, Catherine called for a Legislative Commission organized to develop a new law code to replace the Law Code of 1649. On the first day of the commission, she provided members with her "Instructions" (Nakaz) — a philosophical and legal treatise that embodied all of the Empress's views on the subject. She had been working on the treatise from the early years of her reign in 1764—1765. The "Instructions" mostly reflected Baron de Montesquieu's The Spirit of the Laws and the work of the Italian criminalist Cesare Beccaria, which was quite popular at the time. Catherine's "Instructions" had 22 chapters and 655 articles. 0n the one hand, the "Instructions" emphasized the importance of an autocratic power, but it also endorsed equality and freedom before the law. It abolished torture, limited capital punishment and proposed the division ofjudicial power from executive power. Supposedly, these legal reforms would control the executive sufficiently as to prevent autocracy from drifting into tyranny, though how was not entirely clear. 0 The "Instruction" had little immediate impact within Russia. When the legislative commission adjourned in 1768, it had neitt I prepared a legal code nor Wovemment. Catherine made no further efforts to create

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5132 PM Wed Dec'l Analyze the Evidence o T On the one hand, the "Instructions" emphasized the importance of an autocratic power, but it also endorsed equality and freedom before the law. It abolished torture, limited capital punishment and proposed the division ofjudicial power from executive power. Supposedly, these legal reforms would control the executive sufficiently as to prevent autocracy from drifting into tyranny, though how was not entirely clear. The "Instruction" had little immediate impact within Russia. When the legislative commission adjourned in 1763, it had neither prepared a legal code nor agreed upon measures for restructuring the government. Catherine made no further efforts to create legislation to implement her principles. The "Instruction" did live on, however, as a stimulus to Russian political thought in the 19th century, when Russia waxed and waned between reform and severe autocracy. For example, it was not for another hundred years that the Russian government finally abolished serfdom, a form of enslavement of the poor to the estates of the wealthy. These excerpts from the "Instructions" are about two dozen of these articles, most from the beginning of the document where Catherine discusses general principles of her ideas about enlightened despotism. You can see that some of these articles deal with the rightness of despotism and some about enlightened principles of government that she clearly acquired from her reading of the philosophes. T

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Analyze the EvidenceQuestion

Question: What are the principles of despotism and enlightenment that Catherine advocates in her Instructions?

Instructions: Summarize and quote six articles of despotism and six of enlightenment philosophy that Catherine discussions in these excerpts of her "Instructions."

 

Despotism

 

Enlightenment
  
  
  
  
  
  

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