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© Academy of Management Journal 2009, Vol. 52, No. 1, 87–102. THE SPILLOVER OF DAILY JOB SATISFACTION ONTO EMPLOYEES’ FAMILY LIVES: THE FACILITATING ROLE OF WORK-FAMILY INTEGRATION REMUS ILIES KELLY SCHWIND WILSON DAVID T. WAGNER Michigan State University The longitudinal, multisource, multimethod study presented herein examines the role of employees’ work-family integration in the spillover of daily job satisfaction onto daily marital satisfaction and affective states experienced by employees at home. The spillover linkages are modeled at the within- individual level, and results support the main effects of daily job satisfaction on daily marital satisfaction and affect at home, as well as the moderating effect of work-family integration on the strength of the within-individual spillover effects on home affect. That is, employees with highly integrated work and family roles exhibited stronger intraindividual spillover effects on positive and negative affect at home. Modern technologies such as the Internet, cellu- lar phone, Blackberry, iPhone, and other mobile communication devices have enabled employees and their family members to communicate with each other nearly anywhere, anytime. Moreover, flexible work arrangements under which employ- ees can complete some work tasks from home are increasingly prevalent. As a result, the boundary between time designated for work and time desig- nated for nonwork is more fuzzy, increasing the likelihood of “work- family spillover.” Work-family spillover is defined as “the effects of work and family on one another that generate similarities between the two domains” (Edwards & Rothbard, 2000: 180). Work-family spillover can be behav- ioral or affective in nature (cf. Carlson, Kacmar, Wayne, & Grzywacz, 2006; Edwards & Rothbard, 2000); the latter type of effect is this study’s focus. Affective work-family spillover typically means that work-related moods or attitudes are carried home, or that family-related moods or attitudes are carried to work. Although moods and attitudes are both affective in nature, they differ in stability and target-specificity. That is, unlike a mood, which tends to be highly transient and diffuse (i.e., with- out a specific referent [Watson, 2000]), an attitude is more stable and has a specific object (e.g., job satisfaction is an attitude about one’s job [see Ilies & Judge, 2004]). Judge and Ilies’s (2004) finding that mood at work is positively related to mood at home—a phenomenon referred to as “mood spill- over” (Judge & Ilies, 2004; Williams & Alliger 1994)— demonstrates mood-based work- family spillover. Examples of attitudinal work-family
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spillover include Heller, Watson, and Ilies’s (2004) theorizing about the likelihood of employees’ off- work life (e.g., family relationships) being influ- enced by their job satisfaction and by Judge and Ilies’s (2004) finding that employees with higher job satisfaction tend to report significantly more positive affect at home. In this article, we are concerned with the spill- over of a work role attitude—job satisfaction—from work to family, a process by which employees’ satisfaction with their jobs influences their feelings and attitudes experienced in the family role. Unlike authors who study mood spillover (e.g., Williams & Alliger, 1994), we focus on the spillover of job satisfaction because it is, “from the perspective of research and practice, the most focal employee at- titude” (Saari & Judge, 2004: 396), and because it has been theorized to directly influence employees’ off-work lives (e.g., Heller et al., 2004). Recently, theory and research have focused on job satisfaction as an evaluative state that varies over time (e.g., Heller & Watson, 2005; Ilies & Judge, 2002; Ilies, Schwind, & Heller, 2007). Using a sim- ilar conceptualization of job satisfaction, we focus on the spillover of daily job satisfaction onto feel- ings experienced in the family domain. Such a focus is consistent with Locke’s definition of job satisfaction as an “emotional state [italics added] resulting from an appraisal of one’s job or job ex- periences” (1976: 1300). In keeping with previous theorizing (Heller & Watson, 2005; Judge & Ilies, 2004; Williams, Suls, Alliger, Learner, & Wan, 1991), we define daily job satisfaction as an attitu- dinal evaluation of one’s job or job experiences on 8 7 Copyright of the Academy of Management, all rights reserved. Contents may not be copied, emailed, posted to a listserv, or otherwise transmitted without the copyright holder’s express written permission. Users may print, download or email articles for individual use only.
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