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Assignment: Research Supported Essay (collage level) The research supported essay will "analyze the impact of a technological development on...

Assignment: Research Supported Essay (collage level)

The research supported essay will "analyze the impact of a technological development on a particular aspect of society".

General Topic: The impact of factory farming or industrial farms on nutrition.

* My Main Topic: Possible Health Risks to Humans from the Industrial Farming of Animals.

Key Words: DRUG resistance in microorganisms, ANTIBIOTICS, DRUG resistance, ANTIBIOTICS in animal nutrition, FACTORY farms, genetic engineering, UTILITARIANISM, trade disputes

- Required length 3-4 pages (plus a works cited page) or about 1,400 words, double spaced in APA format (see attached or below)
- Must integrate "six" sources into the essay to support argument. (APA) (see attached)
- Due Date Sunday 30 September 2012 by 1200 (noon) CST.
Assignment: Research Supported Essay (collage level) The research supported essay will "analyze the impact of a technological development on a particular aspect of society". General Topic: The impact of factory farming or industrial farms on nutrition. * My Main Topic: Possible Health Risks to Humans from the Industrial Farming of Animals. Key Words: DRUG resistance in microorganisms, ANTIBIOTICS, DRUG resistance, ANTIBIOTICS in animal nutrition, FACTORY farms, genetic engineering, UTILITARIANISM, trade disputes - Required length about 3-4 pages (body) plus a works cited page or about 1,400 words, double spaced in APA format (see attached or below) - Must integrate "six" sources into the essay to support argument. (APA) - Due Date Sunday 30 September 2012 by 1200 (noon) CST. My six sources are (APA Format): Alvarado, C. G. (2009). Seasonal Changes in Airborne Fungi and Bacteria at a Dairy Cattle Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation in the Southwest United States. Journal Of Environmental Health, 71(9), 40. Lessing, A. (2010). KILLING US SOFTLY: HOW SUB-THERAPEUTIC DOSING OF LIVESTOCK CAUSES DRUG-RESISTANT BACTERIA IN HUMANS. Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review, 37(2), 463. Lutz, B. J., & Lutz, J. M. (2009). Factory Farming and Potential Problems in International Trade. Global Economy Journal, 9(3), 1-10. doi:10.2202/1524-5861.1518 Miller, B. S. (1988). The Dangers of Factory Farming. Business & Society Review (00453609), (65), Pluhar, E. (2010). Meat and Morality: Alternatives to Factory Farming. Journal Of Agricultural & Environmental Ethics, 23(5), 455-468. doi:10.1007/s10806-009-9226-x Williams, N. M. (2008). AFFECTED IGNORANCE AND ANIMAL SUFFERING: WHY OUR FAILURE TO DEBATE FACTORY FARMING PUTS US AT MORAL RISK. Journal Of Agricultural & Environmental Ethics, 21(4), 371-384. doi:10.1007/s10806-008-9087-8
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40 ± Volume±71±•±Number±9 F EATURES Seasonal Changes in Airborne Fungi and Bacteria at a Dairy Cattle Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation in the Southwest United States Carla±S.±Alvarado,±M.P.H. Angelina±Gandara Carissa±Flores,±M.P.H. Hernando±R.±Perez,±M.S.,±Ph.D. Christopher±F.±Green,±M.S.,±Ph.D. William±W.±Hurd,±M.S.,±M.D. Shawn±G.±Gibbs±M.S.,±Ph.D. Introduction The livestock industry in the United States has two widely used practices to maximize productivity that have the potential to nega- tively impact public health: concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) and the nontherapeutic addition of antibiotics to feed to improve the feed conversion ra- tio (Gilchrist et al., 2007). CAFOs have be- come an important part of the swine, poultry, and cattle industries. In the dairy industry, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) defines a large CAFO as one housing at least 700 mature cattle or at least 1,000 cows and calves per facil- ity (United States Environmental Protection Agency [U.S. EPA], 2007). CAFOs confine a large portion of a single species in one area to maximize productivity; however, this can create conditions for the accumulation and concentration of microorganisms (Gibbs et al., 2006). These facilities are large and so densely populated that when a pathogen is introduced, it is difficult to eradicate and the potential risk for human infection is high (Gilchrist et al., 2007). CAFOs have been reported to release fungi, bacteria, antibiotic- resistant bacteria, and odor-emitting com- pounds into the surrounding air (Green, Gibbs, Tarwater, Mota, & Scarpino, 2006; Heederik et al., 2007; Mirabelli, Wing, Mar- shall, & Wilcosky, 2006; Radon et al., 2001). Contact with these airborne microorgan- isms has a potentially negative health effect on both facility workers and people who live near these facilities, particularly downwind (Donham et al., 2007; Green, Gibbs, Tarwater, Mota, & Scarpino, 2006; Heederik et al., 2007; Liao & Luo, 2005; Mirabelli, Wing, Marshall, & Wilcosky, 2006; Radon et al., 2001; Rule et al., 2005). Livestock workers have reported al- lergic reactions, respiratory problems, hyper- sensitivity reactions, and infectious diseases related to exposure to airborne pathogens (Donham et al., 2007; Heederik et al., 2007). The presence of bioaerosols and the allergic respiratory responses they cause are well es- tablished, and in the case of farmers’ work environments, they have been established as agents for the cause of occupational lung dis- ease (Jo & Kang, 2005). The increasing prevalence and ubiquity of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms is a growing concern within both the medical community and animal production industry. The exposure of antibiotic-resistant patho- gens through agricultural products such as beef, poultry, or swine is massive when compared to exposure through hospital and human medicine - based pathways (Chapin, Rule, Buckley, & Schwab, 2005; Witte, 1998). Workers in the animal feeding operation fa- cilities may become colonized with resistant organisms and pass them to their families and coworkers. Studies have found that respira- tory conditions and health problems are more commonly reported in workers on farms and The objective of this study was to evaluate a dairy located in the arid southwest United States to determine the concentra- tions and seasonal variation of airborne fungi and bacteria and to determine the percent- age of antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus aureus . The authors used two-stage ambient air sampling systems to measure the culturable airborne fungal organisms and bacteria on a monthly basis. The authors recovered the most fungal, bacterial, and S. aureus organ- isms during the spring months. The most common fungi identified were Cladosporium, Aspergillus, and Stemphylium, which were most common in the spring and least common in the summer. S. aureus made up 4.2% to 5.5% of the total bacteria, and greater than 50% of this bacteria were found to be resistant to ampicillin, penicillin, or cefaclor, with the greatest incidence of antibiotic resistance occuring in the fall. The incidence of S. aureus resistant to at least two antibiotics ranged from 14% in the spring to 54% in the fall. Abstract
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