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Christina Ha Citrus greening, also known as Huanlongbing, is described as the most devastating disease of citrus in the world. California is one of...

I need to turn in my final essay about Huanlongbing disease in my plant biology class. Its a 3 page essay and there is a draft that I wrote. Could you fix the grammar problems and errors that I made in the essay? I also had comments about citing. I would like the essay fixed as I could turn it in as my final paper. Thank you very much..

Christina Ha Citrus greening, also known as Huanlongbing, is described as the most devastating disease of citrus in the world. California is one of the biggest citrus producing states in the U.S. However, it has come to our attention that HLB has been detected in several citrus trees few years ago in California. It is more difficult to know whether the tree is infected or not since the symptoms for this disease does not show off immediately. Citrus Greening is threatening the California’s citrus industry. California citrus farmers have spent over $500million dollars into detection and treatment program in hope to stop the spreading of the disease. (Lovett 2012) However this is a different story for residential citrus tree owners. More than 70% of people in California own at least one citrus tree in their garden. (Lovett 2012) Since residential citrus tree owners will not be in a position to spray the trees constantly, the citrus trees in the residential areas will have high probability of getting infected. Since the citrus tree is thought passionately by the residents of California, cutting off the citrus trees just because it is infected will be a hard decision that residents of California should make. However, leaving an infected tree is a great risk because it could lead to other numerous healthy trees to get infected as well. The symptoms of this disease have first shown in Florida and have spread along the southern side of the U.S. Citrus greening has grown rapidly across Florida resulting in a high rate of infection, due to late action of control practices. This disease has been detected in other countries such as Southern China, South East Asia and the Indian subcontinent to Pakistan. (Morris and Murraro 2008) Symptoms may vary from different countries, but it does put damages to the trees. This disease has been detected in Brazil for 60 years and eventually came across to U.S, starting from the Palm beach county of Florida in 1998. (Gottwald 2010) Citrus greening through Asian psyllid was wide spread in this area and affected all commercial citrus species seriously. Citrus greening is known to be spread by a
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small insect called a psyllid which is divided into two species. One is the Asian citrus psyllid and the other is the African citrus psyllid. The psyllid that is found in the U.S is the Asian psyllid and this is known to have more disastrous effect on the tree. This psyllid transports the citrus greening from infected trees to healthy trees by feeding on the plant. This disease infects the tree by clogging the trees’ vascular system eventually leading to the death of the tree. The most known symptoms for citrus greening are yellow leaves and enlarged veins. The fruit becomes lopsided with a smaller size and has a bitter taste which makes it unusable for the citrus industry. Sometimes the symptoms are misinterpreted as signs of mineral deficiency since it is difficult to differentiate just by looking at its symptom. As the pathogens move along the tree by time, the whole tree progressively turns yellow. The symptoms usually show up two years after the tree gets infected. As one of the trees gets infected, the disease spreads easily throughout other healthy citrus trees nearby, eventually infecting the whole area. It is not yet determined how the infection started to spread in the U.S, but increased tourism and immigration is one possibility that experts think of. Ted Badkin, president of the citrus research board have mentioned about the latency of symptoms and said it is important to test even healthy looking trees.(Lovett 2012) Researchers have put into effort to find a cure, but there have been no biological or genetic control to stop this spreading of disease. Since there is no known cure, it is important to detect the disease early and apply effective control practices. As the state infectors in California detected the infected tree, they put that area under quarantine inspecting whether other nearby trees was infected. There is several recommended ways of controlling the disease. The easiest way of controlling the disease is chemical control of psyllid vectors. However, it is a challenge for residential HLB positive citrus trees where spraying is not an option. Other way of stopping the spreading of the disease is removing the infected trees. Rogueing of the trees is most efficient when controlled in the initial stage of the epidemic. It has lower chance of future infection of
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Christina Ha
Citrus greening, also known as Huanlongbing,is described as the most devastating
disease of citrus in the world. California is one of the biggest citrus producing states in the...

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